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I^rcsettteb to 
of lite 

PntlJerstty of Sloroitto 


The Harris Family 
Eldon House 
London, Ont. 

-^ A 

1— ^Af 'A' 


I N 



Tros TyRIUSque mi hi nulls difcrimine agetur. 



printed for B.White, at Horace's Head, in Fleet- Street* 




T O 


O F 

M0STYN5 Flintshire, 

Dear Sir, 

A Gentleman well known to the 
political world in the begin- 
ning of the prefent century made the 
tour of Eur op e.^ and before he reached 
Abbeville difcovered that in order to 
fee a country to beft advantage it was 
infinitely preferable to travel by day 
than by night. 

I cannot help making this appli- 
cable to myfelfj who, after publiHi- 
ing three volumes of the Zoology of 
Great Britain, found out that to 
A 2 be 


be able to fpeak with more precifion- 
of the fubjedls I treated of, it was 
far more prudent to vifit the whole 
than part of my country : ftrucfk 
therefore with the refledion of hav- 
ing never feen Scotland, I inflantly 
ordered my baggage to be got ready, 
and in a reafonable time found mv- 
felf on the banks of the Thsoeed. 

As foon as I communicated to you 
my refolution, with your accuflomed 
-' friendfhip you wifhed to hear from 
m.e : I could give but a partial per- 
formance of my promife, the atten- 
tion of a traveller beins: fo much 
taken up .as to leave very little room 
for the difcharge of epiftolary duties ; 
and I flatter myfelf you will find this 
tardy execution ol: my engagement 
more fatisfaiflory than the hafiy ac- 
counts I could fend you on my road : 
but this is far from being; the fole 
motive of this addrefs. 

I have 


I have irrefiftible inducements of 
public and of a private nature : to 
you I owe a rnoft free enjoyment of 
the Htde territories Providence had 
beftowed on me ; for by a liberal 
and equal ceffion of lields, and 
meads and woods, you conneded all 
the divided parts, and gave a full 
fcope to all my improvements. Every 
view I take from my window re- 
minds me of my debt, and forbids 
my filence, cauiing the pleaiing glow 
of gratitude to diffufe itfelf over 
the whole frame, inftead ot forcing 
up the imbittering ligh oi: Oh I Ji 
angulus ilk I Now every fcene I en- 
joy receives new charms, tor I mingle 
with the vifible beauties, the more 
plealing idea of owing them to 
yoii, the worthy neighbor and firm 
friend, who aie happy in the calm 
and domeftic paths of life with abili- 
ties fupcrior to oftentatioD;^ and good- 



nefs content with its own reward : 
with a found judgement and honeft 
heart you worthily difcharge the fe- 
natorial truft repofed in you, whofe 
unprejudiced vote aids to ftill the 
mad nefs of the People, or aims to 
check the prefumption of the Minifter. 
My happinefs in being from your ear- 
lieft life your neighbor, makes me con- 
fident in my obfervation; your increaf- 
ino; and difcerning band of friends 
difcovers and confirms the jufticc of 
it : may the reafons that attrad: and 
bind us to you ever remain, is the mod 
gratefull vvifh that can be thought 
of, by, 

Dear Sir, 

Your obljo-ed and 

ajfeEiionate Friendy 

a.?™:';;,. Thomas Pennant. 


[ vii ] 


I. Yp IDER Drake and Duck, Page 37 

Ilf II. Dunkeld C^ihcdral, 78 

III. Csiksidc n^Sir Taymouih, 84 

IV. View from the King's Seat near Bkir, 103 

V. Brae-mar Caftlc, with a diftant View of Inver- 

cauld III 

VI. Invernefs, i47 

VII. Frefwick C2i?i\Q, 162 

VIII. i he Gannet darting on its Prey, 165 
\X. Czit\cUrqhuart, 180 

X. Upper Fall of f>vn, 181 

XI. Sterling Caftle, 220 

XII. Arthur''^ Oven, and two Lcchaher Axes, 224 

XIII. Pillars in Penrith Church-Yard, 287 

XIV. Roebuck. White Hare, 2S8 

XV. Cock of the Wood, 293 

XVI. Hen of the Wood. Ptarmigan, 294 

XVII. Saury. Greater Weever, 298 

XVIII. Thorney Crab. Cordated Crab. The laft 

from the Ifle of Wight^ 300 

Page 234. A View of the gigantic Yew-Trce 
in Fortingal Church- Yard. The middle part is 
now decayed to the ground ; but within me- 
mory was united to the height of three feet : 
Captain Campbell of Glen-Lion having afTured 
me that when a boy he has often climbed over, 
or rode on the then conneding part. 
















in the note, 
in the note, 



the front, - 



in the note, mortittf 


Parifh of the fame name — 



I find by Montcitb that the cathedral of Elgin was 

founded A. D. 1204 by y^w^r^zu Bi (hop o^ Murray y 

and that Inms only built great part of the fteeple, to 

which the words /iflf «o.'fl^//^ o/aj allude. Vide Mou^ 

)f^///;»'s Theatre of Mortality, 214, 219. 

lines 14, 15, dele •* is certainly a moll authentit repre- 
fentation of them ;" and iJifcrt " were not done under 
my own eye, nor can my memory enable me to fay 
whether thefe, or the drawing in pofleffion of the Anti- 
quarian Society, have the ilrongell refcmblance.'* 






the (outh front, 





Parifh oi Cowobik. 




A T O U R 

I N 



ON Monday the 26th of Juxe take my depar- Chiite^^ 
ture from Chester, a city without parallel 
for the fingular ftrucftureof the four princi- 
pal ftreets, which are as if excavated out of the 
earth, and funk many feet beneath the furface ; the 
carriages drive far beneath the level of the kitchens, 
on a line with ranges of fliops, over which on each 
fide of the ftreets paffengers walk from end to end, 
in covered galleries, fecurc from wet or heat. The 
back courts of all thefc houfcs are level with the 
ground, but to go into any of thefe four ftreets it is 
neceftary to defcend a flight of feveral fteps. 

The Cathedral is an antient ftruflure, very ragged 
on the outfide, from the nature of the red friable 
ftone * with which it is built : the tabernacle work 
in the choir is very neat ; but the beauty, and elegant 
fimplicity of a very antique gothic chapter-houfc, 
is what merits a vifit from every traveller. 

The Hypocauft near the Feathers Inn, is one of 
the remains of the Remans -f, it being well known 
that this place was a principal ftation. Among 

* Saxum arenarium friabile rubrum Da CcJlafpJJits. I. 139. 
f This city was the Deva and De-jana *f Antonine, and 
the ftation of the Legio •-^•icejima I'iJJrix, 

B many 

i A T O U R 

many antiquities found here, none is more lingular 
than tlie rude fculpture of the Dea Armigera Miner- 
'va, with her bird and her altar, on the face of a 
rock in a fmall field near the ff^clcb end of the 

The caflle is a decaying pile. The walls of the 
«,ity,. the only complete fpecimens of antient for- 
tifications, are kept in excellent order, being the 
principal walk of the inhabitants •, the views from 
the feveral parts are very fine •, the mountains of 
Flintf/jire^ the hills of Broxton, and the infulated 
rock of Bcefion, form the ruder part of the fccnery j 
H rich flat forms the fofter view, and the profpe6t 
up the river towards Boiighton^ recalls in fome de- 
cree the idea of the 1'hames and Richmond hill. 

Pafled thro* Tarvifi, a fmall village j in the 
church-yard is an epitaph in memory of Mr. John 
Tbomafen, an excellent penman, but particularly 
famous for his exad and elegant imitation of the 
Greek charader. 

Belamere-, which Leland calls a faire and large 
foreft, with plenty of redde deer and falow, is now 
a black and dreary walle j it feeds a few rabbets, 
and a few black 'Terns * fl<;im over the fplafhes that 
water fome part of it. 
SaltPits. A few miles from this heath lies Northwich^ a 

fmall town, long famous for its rock fait, and 
brine pits j fome years ago I vifited one of the 
mines -, the ftratum of fait lies about forty yards 
deep i that which I faw was hollowed into the form 
of a temple j 1 defcended thro' a dome, and found 

* Br. ZocL II. 430. 



the roof fupported by rows of pillars, about tvva 
yards thick, and fcveral in height -, the v.'hole was 
illuminated with numbers of candles, and made a 
molt magnificent and glittering appearance. Above 
the fait is a bed of whiti(h clay *, ufed in making 
the Z./i'(?r/'^(5/ earthen-ware J and in the fame place 
is alfo dug a good deal of the Gypfmn, or plaifter 
ftone. The folTil fait is generally yellov-'j and femi- 
pellucid, fometimes debafed with a dull greenifh 
earth, and is often found, but in fmall quantitiesj 
quite clear and color-lefs. 

The road from this place to Macclesfield is thro* 
a flat, rich, but unpleafant country. That town is 
in a very flourifliing ftate, is pciTeiTed of a great 
manufadure of mohair and twill buttons; has be- 
tween twenty and thirty filk mills, and a very con- 
fiderable copper fmelting houfe, and brafs work. 

After leaving this place the court try almoft in- 
ftantly changes and becomes" very mountanbus and 
barren, at left on the furface •, but the bowels com- 
penlate for the external fterility, by yielding fuffi- 
cient quantity of coal for the ufe of th6 neighboring 
parts of Chejhire^ and for the burning of Hme ; 
vaft quantity is made near Buxfojj, and being car- 
ried to air parts for the purpofes of agriculture, is 
become a confiderable article of commerce. 

The celebrated warm bath of Buxton f is Buxtoi*^ 

^ Argilla caerula-cinerea Da Cofta fcjjlls. 1. d8. 

\ The Romans^ who were remarkably fond of warm' baths, 
did not over-look tnefe agreeaole waters ; they had a bath, 
jnclofed with a brick wall, adjacent to the prelcnc St. Anni'% 
\vell, which Dr. Short ^ in his effay oh tniatrai watei.^ lays 
-iiyas razed in" 1 709. 

B 2 feated 


fcatcd in a bottom, amidfl: thefe hills, in a moft' 
chearlefs fpot, and would be little frequented, did 
not Hygeia often refide here, and difpenfe to her 
votaries the chief blelTings of life, eafe and health: 
with joy and gratitude I this moment refled on the 
efficacious qualities of the waters *, I recoiled with 
rapture the return of fpirits, the flight of pain, and 
re-animation of my long, long crippled rheumatic 
limbs. But how unfortunate is it, that what Pro- 
vidence defigned for the general good, fhould be 
rendered only a partial one, and denied to all, ex- 
cept the opulent ; or I may fay to the (compara- 
tively) few that can get admittance into the houfc 
where thefe waters are imprifoned. There are 
other fprings (Cambde7i fays nine) very near that in 
the Z/.'?//, and in all probability of equal virtue. I 
was informed that the late Duke of Devoiipire^ not 
long before his death, had ordered fomc of thefe to 
be inclofed and formed into baths. It is to be hoped 
that his fucceflbr will not fail adopting fo ufeful 
and humane a plan-, that he will form it on the moft 
enlarged fyllem, that they may open not folely to 
thofe whom mifufed wealth hath rendered invalids, 
but to the poor cripple, whom honefl labor hath 
made a burden to himfelf and his country ; and to 
the foldier and failor, who by hard fervice have loft 
the ufe of thofe very limbs which once were aiStive 
in our defence. The honor rcfulting from fuch a 
foundation would be as great, as the fatisfaflion 
arifmg from a confcioufnefs of fo benevolent a work 
would be unfpeakablc •, the charms of diHlpation 
would then Igfe their force, and dull and tallclcfs 



•would every human luxury appear to him, who had 
it in his power thus to lay open thefe fountains of 
health, and to be able to exult in fuch pathetic and 
comfortable drains as thefe -.When the ear heard me^ 
then it blejfed jjie, and ivhen the eye faiv me it gave 
zvitnefs to me ; 

Becaufe I delivered the poor that cried, and the fa- 
therlefs, and him that had none to help him. 

The hkjfing of him that was ready to perijlo came 
upon me, and I caufed the ividozv's heart to fmg 
for joy, 

I tvas eyes to the hiind, and feet iL-as I to the lame» 

After leaving Buxton, paffed thro' Middkton dale, 
a deep narrow chafm between two vaft cliffs, which 
extend on each fide near a mile in length : this 
road is very fingular, but the rocks in general are 
too naked to be beautiful. At the end is the fmall 
village of Stoney Middkton ; here the profpecSt 
opens, and at Barfly Bridge exhibits a pretty view 
of a fmall but fertile vale, watered by the Der- 
went, and terminated by Chatfworth, and its plan- 
tations. Arrived and lay at 

Chejlerfield •■, an ugly town. In this place is a 
great cnanufaclure of worded (lockings, and ano- 
ther of a brown earthen-ware, much of which is 
fent into Holland, the country which, within lefs 
than half a century ago, fupplied not only thefe 
kingdoms but half Europe with that comm.odity ; 
the clay is found near the tov/n, over the bafs or 
cherty * ftratum, above the coal. The fteeple of 
Chejlerfield church is a fpire, covered with lead, 

• Or flinty. 

B 3 jaut 

A T O U R 

but by a violent wind ilrangely bent, in which 
(late it remains. 
Jvyz 27. In the roa.-^ fide, about three miles from the 
town, sre feveral pits of iron {tone, about nine or 
ten feet deep. -The ftratum lies above the coal, 
and is two feet thick. I was informed that the 
adventurers pay ten pounds per annum to the Lord 
of the Soil, for liberty of raifing it •, that the la- 
borers have fix fliilUn^s per load for getting it ; 
each load is about twenty ftrikes or bufhels, which 
yields a tun of metal. Coal, in thefe parts, is very 
cheap, a tun and a half being fold for five fhillings. 

Changed horfes at Work/op and Ttixford; crofled 
the Trent at Bunhmn- Ferry ^ where it is broad but 
fhallow i the fpring tides flov; here, and rife about 
two feet, but the common tides never reach this 
place. Pafs along the Fojs-Byh-, or the canal 
opened by Henry I. * to form a communication be- 
tween the Trent and the Witham j it was opened i* 
the year 1121, and extends from Linccht to Tor- 
kefey ; its length is eleven miles three quarters, the 
breadth between dike and dike at the top is about 
fixty feet, at bottom twenty-two \ vefTcls from fif- 
teen to thirty-five tuns navigate this canal, and by 
its means a confidernble trade in coals, timber, 
corn and wool, is carried on. In former times, the 

* Diigiiah on embanking, 167. 

f I make ufe of this word, as Do6>or Stukrh conjeftures 
this canal to have been originally a Rcmun work ; and that 
another of the fame kind (tailed the Carftiike) coinmunic.ited 
with ir, by means of the IFiihom, which began a little below 
Wojl:eniro\ three miles horn Lincoln^ and was continued thro' 
the fens as far as I'rtnbcrcugh. Stuk,:'y''i Cnraujius. 125. feq(J. 
hjufd. Account of Richard of Cirencejhr. 50, 



perfons who had landed property on either fide 
were obliged to fcower it whenever it was choaked 
up, and accordingly we find prefentments were 
made by juries in feveral lucceeding reigns for thac 
purpofe. Reach 

Lincoln, anantientbqt ill-built city, much fallen 
away from its former extent. It lies partly on a plain, 
partly on a very fteep hill, on whofe fummit are 
the cathedral and the ruins of the caftle. The firft 
is a vaft pile of gothic architecture ; has nothing 
remarkable on the outfide, but within is of match- 
lefs beauiy and magnificence : the ornaments are 
excefTively rich, and in the fineft gothic tafte ; th« 
pillars light, the centre lofty, and of a furprifing 
grandeur. The windows at the N. and S. ends 
very antient, but very elegant; one reprefents a 
leaf with its fibres, the other confifls of a number 
of fmall circles. There are two other antient win- 
dows on each fide the great ifle : the others, as I 
recoiled, are modern. This church was, till of 
late years, much out of repair, but has jufb been 
reftored in a manner that does credit to the Chap- 
ter. There is indeed a fort of arch near the W, 
end, that feems placed there (for the fame end as 
Bayes tells us he wrote one of his fcenes) meerly to 
fet off the refl. 

The profpeCt from this eminence is very exten- 
five, but very barren of obje6ts, a vafi: fiat as far 
as the eye can reach, confiding of plains not the 
moil fertile, or of fens * and moors : the lafi; are 


* The fens, naked as they now appear, were once well wood-.- 
ed ; oaks have been found buried in them, which were fixtecn 

B 4- yards 



far Icfs extcnfivc than they were, many being 
drained, and will foon become the bed land in the 
country. But ftili much remains to be done-, the 
fens near Revejby Ahby *, eight miles beyond 
Horncajik^ are of vaft extent ; but ferve for little 
other purpofc than the rearing great numbers of 
geefe, which are the wealth of the fenmen. 

During the breeding feafon, thefe birds are 
lodged in the fame houfes with the inhabitants, and 
even in their very bed-chambers : in every apart- 
ment are three rows of coarfe wicker pens placed 
one above another ; each bird has its feparate lodge 
divided from the other, which it keeps poflefllon 
of during the time of fitting. A perfon, called a 
Cozxard -f, attends the flock, and twice a day 
drives the whole to water •, then brings them back 
to their habitations, helping thofe that live in the 
upper ftories to their nefts, without ever mifplac- 
ing a fingle bird. 

The geefe are plucked five times in the year ; 
the firft plucking is at Lady-Day^ for feathers and 
quills, and the fame is renewed, for feathers only, 
four times more between that and Michaelmas, The 
old geefe fubmit quietly to the operation, but the 

yards long, and five in circumference ; fir trees from thirty to 
thirty- five yards long, and a foot or eighteen inches fquare. 
Thefe trees had not the mark of the ax, but appeared as if 
burnt down by fire applied to their lower parts. Acorns and 
fmall nuts have alfo been found in great quantities in the 
fame places. /J//^^«/<r on enibai^king, 141. 

* Rc'veflty /.bhy was founded i 142, by H'. Je Romara, Earl 
oiLiticoln, for Ciftercian monks, and granted by // 30. 
to C^Dukc o{ Sujolk. The founder turning monk was buried 
here. Tanner. 263. 

t i. e. Goofe-herd. 



young ones are very noify and unruly. I once law 
this performed, and obferved that godins of fix 
weeks old were not fpared ; for their tails were 
plucked, as I was told, to habituate them early to 
what they were to come to. If the feafon proves 
cold, numbers of geefe die by this barbarous cuf- 
tom *. 

Vaft numbers are drove annually to London^ to 
fupply the markets ; among them, all the fuper- 
annuated geefe and ganders (called here Cagmags) 
which ferve to fatigue the jaws o*f the good Citizens, 
who are fo unfortunate as to meet with them. 

The fen called the V/eJi Fen^ is the place where pen bir<2s- 
the Rufts and Reeves refort to in the greatefl: num- 
bers -f -, and many other forts of water fowl, which 
do not require the fhelter of reeds or ruflies, mi- 
grate here to breed ; for this fen is very bare, having 
been imperfeflly drained by narrow canals, v/hich 
interfed it for great numbers of miles. Thefe the 
inhabitants navigate in moft diminutive {hallow 
boats ; they are, in faft, the roads of the country. 
The Eajl Fen is quite in a ftate of nature, and 
gives a fpecimen of the country before the intro- 
dudlion of drainage : it is a vaft traft of morafs, 
intermixed with numbers of lakes, from half a mile 
to two or three miles in circuit, communicating 
with each other by narrow reedy flraits : they are 
very (hallow, none are above four or five feet in 
depth ; but abound with fifli, fuch as Pike, Perch, 
RufF, Bream, Tench, Rud, Dace, Roach, Bur- 

* It was alfo praftifed by the antlents. Candidorum alterum 
<iie£ligal: Velluntur quihti/dat?t locis bis anno. Plinii lib. v.. C. 22. 
t Br. Zool. II. 365*. S:tppl. tab. xv. /. 22. 


lo A T O U R 

bot, Sticklebacks and Eels. It is obfervable, that 
once in fevtn or eight years, immenfe fhoals o^ 
Sticklebacks appear in the Welland below Spaldwgy 
and attempt conning up the river in form of a vaft 
column. They are fuppofed to be the colle6lcd 
multitudes waQied out of the fens by the floods of 
feveral years ; and carried into fome deep hole, 
when over-charged with numbers, they are obliged 
to attempt a change of place. They move up the 
river in Rich quantities as to enable a man, who was 
employed in taking them, to earn, for a confider- 
able time, four Ihillings a day, by felling them at 
a halfpenny per bulhel. They were ufed to manure 
land, and attempts have been made to get oil from 
them. The fen is covered with reeds, the harvcd 
of the neighboring inhabitants, who mow them 
annually; for they prove a much better thatch 
than draw, and not only cottages but many very 
good houfes are covered with them. Stares, which 
during winter refort in myriads to rood in the 
reeds, are very de{lru6live, by breaking them down 
by the vaft numbers that perch on them. The 
people are therefore very diligent in their attempts 
to drive them away, and are at great expence in 
powder to free themfelves from thefe troublefome 
guefts. I have fcen a ftock of reeds harvefted and 
flacked worth two or three hundred pounds, which 
was the property of a fingle farmer. 

The birds which inhabit the different fens are 
very numeroiis : I never met with a finer field for 
the Zoolcgift to range in. Beildes the common 
Wild duck, of which an account is given in another 



place *, wild Geefe, Garganles, Pochards, Sho- 
velers and Teals, breed here. I have feen on the 
Eaji Fen a fmall flock of the tufted Ducks ; but 
they feemed to make it only a baiting place. The 
Pewit Gulls and black Terns abound; the laft in 
vaft flocks almofl: deafen one with their clamors : a 
few of the great Terns, or Tickets, are feen among 
them. I faw feveral of the great- crefted Grebes on 
the Eaft Fen^ called there G aunts, and met with one 
of their floating nefts with eggs in it. The lefler 
crefted Grebe, the black and dufky Grebe, and the 
little Grebe, are alfo inhabitants of the fens-, toge- 
ther with Coots, Water-hens, fpotted Water-hens, 
Water-rails, Ruffs, Redflianks, Lapwings or Wipes, 
Red-breafl:ed Godwits and Whimbrels. The God- 
wits breed nQ2LV J-Vajhenhrcugh -y the Whimbrels onlv 
appear for about a fortnight in May near Spalding, 
and then quit the country. Oppofite to Fcjfdyke 
Wajloy during fummtr, are great numbers oi Avo- 
fettas, called there Tel-pers, from their cry : th^y 
hover over the fportfman's head like the Lapwing, 
and fly with their necks and legs extended. 

Knots are taken in nets along the fhores near 
Fojfdyke in great numbers during winter ; but they 
difappear in the fpring. 

The ihort-eared owl, Br. ZjOoL L 156. vifits the 
neighbourhood (^iWafljcnhrough, along with the 
Woodcocks, and probably performs its migrations 
with thofe birds, for it is obferved to quit the coun- 

* Br. Zool. II, 462. In general, to avoid repetition, the rea- 
der is referr'd to the four OHavn volumes oi Britijh Zoology, 
for a more particular account of animals mentioned in this 


" A T O U R 

try at the fame time : I have alfo received fpecimens 
ot tliem from the BcmiJJj dominions, one of the re- 
treats of the Woodcock. This owl is not obferved 
in this country to perch on trees, but conceals itfelf 
in long old grafs ; if difturbed, takes a fhort flight, 
lights again and keeps flaring about, during which 
time its horns are very vifible. The farmers are 
fond of the arrival of thefe birds, as they clear the 
iields of mice, and will even fly in fearch of prey 
during day, provided the weather is cloudy and 
Heronry. But the greateft curioflty in thefe parts is the vafl: 

Heronry at Creji-Hall^ fix miles from Spalding. The 
Herons refort there m February to repair their nelts, 
fettle there in the fpring to breed, and quit the place 
during winter. They are numerous as Rooks, and 
their nefts fo crouded together, that myfelf and the 
company that v/as with me counted not fewer than 
eighty in one tree. I here had opportunity of de- 
tedling my own millake, and that of other Ornitho- 
logifcs, in making two fpecies of Herons ; for I 
fjund that the crefted Heron was only the male of 
the other: it made a mofl: beautiful appearance 
with its fnowy neck and long crcfl fl:reaming with 
the wind. I'he family who owned this place was 
ot the fame name with thefe birds, which fcems to 
be the principal inducement for preferving thsm. 

In the time of Michael Drayton, 
Here Jlalk'd the ftately crane, as though he marcFd 

in rear. 
But at prefent this bird is quite unknown in our 
ifland i but every other fpecies enumerated by that 



obfervant Poet flill are found in this fenny tra6l, 
er its neighbourhood. 

Vifited Spalding^ a place very much refembling, Jupce 28, 
in form, neatnefs, and fituation, a Butch town : padm^. 
the river PFeliand pafles through one of the ftreets, 
a canal is cut through another, and trees are planted 
on each fide. The church is a handfome ftru6lure, 
the fteeple a fpire. The churches in general, 
throughout this low tradl, are very handfome ; all 
are built of ftone, which muft have been brought 
from places very r'emote, along temporary canals j 
for, in many inftances, the quarries lie at left twenty 
miles diftant. But thefe edifices were built in 
zealous ages, when the benedidtions or maledidions 
of the church made the people conquer every diffi- 
culty that might obftrucl thef* pious foundations. 
The abby of Crowland^ feated in the midft of a 
fhaking fen *, is a curious monument of the infu- 
perable zeal of the times it was crefled in ; as the 
beautiful tower of Bcjton church, vifible from all 
parts, is a magnificent fpecimen of a fine gothic 

Pafl^ed near the fite 0? Swinejljead-Abhy^, of v/hich j^nh 29, 
there are not the left remains. In the walls of a Snvmejhead- 
farm houfe, built out of the ruins, you are fhewn 
the figure of a Knight Templar, and told it v/as 
the monk \y\\o poifoned King John-i a fa6l denied 
by our beft hiftorians. 

• This monaftery was founded by Ethtl^ald l\\r\^ of Mrr- 
cia, A. D. 716. The ground being too marfhy t" admit a 
weighty building of flone, he made a foundation, by drivinjc 
into the ground vafl: piles of oak ; and caufed more comprifk 
earth to be brought in boats nine miles off to lay on them, 
and foriD a more found foundation. 



«l A. T O U R 

Returned thro' Lincoln^ went out of town under 
the Nezvport-Gatey a curious Roman work •, paflcd 
over part of the heath, changed liorfes at Spittle, 
and at G la-nf or d Bridge^ dined at the ferry-houfe on 
the banks of the Humber^ and after a paflfage of 
about five miles, with a brifk gale, landed at Hull^ 
and reached that night Eur ton-Conft able, the feat of 
Mr. Conjlable, in that part of Torkfmre called Hoi- 
dernefs j a rich flat country, but excellent for pro- 
ducing large cattle, and a good breed of horfes, 
whole prices are near doubled fince the French have 
grown fo fond of the Eriglijh kind. 

Made an excurfion to Hornfea^ a fmall town on 
the coaft, remarkable only for its mere, a piece of 
water about two miles long, and one broad, fa- 
mous for its pike sfid eels ; it is divided from the 
fea by a very narrow bank, fo is in much danger of 
being fome time or other loll. 

The cliffs on the coaft of Holdernefs are high, 
and compofed of clay, which falls down in vaft 

Amber. fragments. Quantity of amber is wafhed out of 
it by the tides, which the country people pick up 
and fell -, it is found fometimes in large mafles, but 
I never faw any lb pure and clear- as that from the 
Baltic. It is ulually of a pale yellow color within, 
and prettily clouded ; the outfide covered with a 
thin coarfe coat. 

July 2. After riding about twenty-two miles thro* a flat 

grazing country, reached Burlington- S^uay, a fmall 
tov/n dole to the fea. There is a defign of build- 
ing a pier, for the protedion of fliippingv at pre- 
fcnt there is only a large wooden quay, which pro- 
2 jc<^s 

I N S C O T L A N D." 15 

iefts into the water, from which the place takes its 
name. From hence is a fine view of the white 
cliffs of Flamborough-Heady which extends far to 
the Eaft, and forms one fide of the Gabrantuicoritm 
finus portucfus of Ptolpmy-, a name derived from the 
Britijh Gyfvy on account of tlie number of goats 
found there, according to the conjedlure oiCambden. 

A mile from hence is the town of Burlingion. 
The body of the church is large, but the fteeple, 
by fome accident* has been deftroyed •, near it is a 
large gateway, with a noble gothic arch, pofTibly 
the remains of a priory of black canons, founded 
by Walter de <3ant, in the beginning of the reign of 
Henry I. 

This coaft of the kingdom is very unfavorable 
to trees, for, except fome woods in the neighbor- 
hood of Burton-Conjlable, there is a vaft nakednefs 
from the Humber^ as far as tlie extremity of Cath- 
nefsf with a very few exceptions, which fliall be 
noted in their proper places. 

Went to Flamborough-Head. The town is on Tuly 3, 
the North fide, confifts of about one hundred and ^^'«^^"«^*- 
fifty fmall houfes, entirely inhabited by fifliermen, 
few of whom, as is faid, die in their beds, but 
meet their fate in the element they are fo conver- 
fant in. Put myfelf under the diredion q1 William 
Camidge^ Cicerone of the place, who conducted me 
to a little creek at that time covered with {\'i^i\ 2l 
fleet of cobles having jufi: put in. Went in one 
of thofe little boats to view t!ie Head^ coafting it 
for upwards of two miles. The cliffs are of a tre- 
mendous height, and amazing grandeur i beneath 


i^ A T O U R 

are feveral vaft caverns, fome clofed at the end,' 
others are pervious, formed with a natural arch, 
giving a romantic pafiage to the boat, different from 
that we entered. In fome places the rocks are in- 
fulated, are of a pyramidal figure, and foar up to 
a vaft height -, the bafes of moft are folid, but in 
fome pierced thro', and arched ; the color of all 
thefe rocks is white, from the dung of the innu- 
Its birds, merable flocks of migratory birds, which quite 
cover the face of them, filling every little projec- 
tion, every little hole that will give them leave 
to reft ; multitudes were fwimming about, others 
fwarmed in the air, and almoft ftunned us with die 
variety of their croaks and fcreams ; I obferved 
among them corvorants, fliags in fmall flocks, 
guillemots, a few black guillemots very fliy and 
wild, auks, puffins, kittiwakes *, and herring 
gulls. Landed at the fame place, but before our 
return to Flambcrough, vifited Robin Leith*s hole, 
a vaft cavern, to which there is a narrow pafl'age 
from the land fide i it fuddenly rifes to a great 
height, the roof is finely arched, and the bottom is 
' for a confiderable way formed in broad fteps, re- 
fembling a great but eafy ftair-cafe -, the mouth 
opens to the fca, and gives light to the whole. 

Lay at Hunmandby, a fmall village above Filey 
Bay, round which are fome plantations that thrive 
tolerably well, and ought to be an encouragement 
to gentlemen to attempt covering thefe naked hills. 

Filey Brig is a ledge of rocks running far into 
the fea, and often fatal to (hipping. The bay is 

• Called here Petrels, Br. Zool. Suf>f>I, tab. xxiii./. 26. 


/^ Jet />-^^ ;;-V^/'>^^- 


fandy, and affords vaffc quantities of fine fifh, fuch 
as Turbot, Soles, &c. which during fummer ap- 
proach the fliore, and are eafily taken in a common 
feine or dragging-net. 

Set out for Scarborough, paffed near the fite of Jvly 4, 
Fiixion, a hofpital founded in the time oi Atbclfian, 
ro give fhelter to travellers from the wohes, that 
they Jhould not he devoured by them * ; fo that in thofe 
days this bare tra(5l muft have been covered with 
wood, for thofe ravenous animals ever inhabit large 
forefts. Thefe hofpitia are not unfrequent among 
the /lips i are either appendages to religious houfes, 
or fupported by voluntary fubfcriptiuns. On the 
fpot where Flixtcn flood is a farm-houfe, to this 
day called the Spital Houfe. Reach 

Scarborough, a large town, builc in form of a; 
erefcent on the fides of a fteep hilt ; at one extre- 
mity are the ruins of the caftle, feat:ed on a cliff or 
a ftupendous height, from whence is a very good 
viev/ of the town. In the caflle-yard is a handfome 
barrack for one hundred and fitty men, but at pre- 
fent untenanted by foldiery. Beneath, on the foutfi 
fide, 15 a large flone pier, (another is now build- 
ing) which fhelters the fnipping belonging to the 
town. It is a place abfolutely without trade, yec 
owns above 300 fail of fhips, which are hired out 
for freight : in the late v/ar the Government had 
never lefs than 100 "of them in pay. 

The number of inhabitants belonging: to this 
place are above 10,000, but ^5 great part are 

* Camhden Brit. II. 902. 

C failors;! 

i9 A T O U R 

failors, nothing like that number are refident, 
which makes one church fufficient for thole who 
live on fhore. It is large, and fcated almoft: on 
the top of the hili. The range of buildings on 
the C//^ commands a fine view of the caftle, town, 
and fliore, and of innumerable fliipping that are 
perpetually pafTing backward and forward on their 
voyages. The fpaw * lies at the foot of one of the 
hills, S. of the town i this and the great conveni- 
cncy of fea-bathing, occafion a vaft refort of com- 
pany during fumnier •, it is at that time a place of 
great gayety, for with numbers health is the pre- 
tence, but dilTipation the end. 

The fliore is a fine hard fand, ard during lo\r 
water is the place where the company amufe them- 
fclves with riding. This is alfo the fifli market; for 
every day the cobles, or little fidiing-boats, are 
drawn on fliore heie, and lie in rows, often quite 
loaden with variety of the bed fifli. There was a 
fiOierman, on the 9th of May , 1767, brought in 

at one time, 
20 Cods, 

14 Lings, 
17 Skates, 

8 Holibuts, befides a vaft quantity of leflrr f.fh j 
and fold the whole for 3 1. 15 s. It is fuperfluous to 
repeat what has been before mentioned, of the me- 
thods of fifliinfT, being amply dcfcrjbed, /'W. III. p. 

* The waters nre impregnated with a purgative fait, (Cla:i' 
lir's) a Imall quantity of common fait, and cMlccl. 1 here 
are two wells, the (arthcft from the town is more purgative, 
and its talle more bitt.-r ; the other is more chalybeate, and 
its uitc more briflc and pungent. D. fi. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 19 

193, of the Britifi Zoology ; yet it will be far from 
impertinent to point out the pcculi^ advantages of 
thcfe feas, and the additional benefit this town might 
experience, by the augmentation of its filnerras. 
For this account, and for numberlefs civilities, I 
think myfelf much indebted to Mr. Travis^ fur- 
geon, who communicated to me the following Re- 
marks : 

" Scarborough is fituated at the bottom of a bay, ' 
formed by iVhilbf rock on the Norih, and Flanibo- 
rough-head on the South -, the town is feated diredly 
oppofite to the centre of the W. end of the Dogger 
bank ; which end, (according to Hammond's chart 
of the North Sea) lies S. and by VV, and N. and 
by E. but by a line dravv'n from linmonth cafJc, 
would lead about N. W. and S. E. Tho' the Dog- 
get bank is therefore but i 2 leagues from Flambc- 
rough-head, yet it is 16 and a half from Scarborough^ 
23 from IVhitby, and ^6 from Tinmouth caftle. The 
N. fide of the bank flretches ofFE. N. E. between 
30 and 40 leagues, until it almoft: joins to the 
Long-Bank^ and Jutt's, Riff. 

" It is to be remarked, that the fifliermen feldom 
find any Cod, Ling, or other round fiih upon the 
Dogger bank itfelf, but on the flOping edges and 
hoUows contiguous to it. The top of the bank i> 
covered with a barren fliifting fand. which affords 
them no fubfiQence; and the water on it, from, it^ 
fnailownrfs, is continually lb agitated and broken, 
as to rillow them no time ro rcit. The fin filh do 
not fuFcr the fame inconvenience tliere j for when 
difturbed by the motion of tlic ka. thc-y Hielter 

C 2 tliem- 

A T O U R 

themfclves in the fand, and find variety of fuitablc 
food. It is true, the Butch fifli upon the Dogger 
bank, but it is alfo true they take littleexcept Soles, 
Skates, Thornbacks, Plaife, &c. It is in the hol- 
lows between x.\\t Dogger 2i{\di i\\tPFell-Ba7iky that 
the Cod are taken, which fupply L<7W^« market. 

" The fhore, except at the entrance of Scarbo- 
rough pier, and fome few other places, is compofcd 
of covered rocks, which abound with Lobftcrs 
and Crabs, and many other fliell filh, (no Oyfters) 
thence, after a fpace covered with clean fand, ex- 
tending in different places from one to five or fix 
miles. The bottom, all the way to the edge of 
the Dogger banks, is a fear ; in fome places very 
rugged, rocky, and cavernous ; in others fmooth, 
and overgrown with variety of fubmarine plants, 
MofiTes, Corallines, &c. * fome parts again arc 
fpread with fand and fhells •, others, for many 
leagues in length, with foft miud and ooz, furnilhed 
by the difcharge of the Tees and Hurnber. 

*' Upon an attentive review of the whole, it may 
be clearly inferred, that the fhore along the coaft 
on the one hand, with the edges of the Dogger 
bank on the other, like the fides of a decoy, give a 
direction towards ourfifliing grounds to the mighty 
fhoals of Cod, and other fifh, which are well known 
to come annually from the Northern ocean into our 
feas •, and fecondly, that the great variety of fifliing 
grounds near Scarborough^ extending upwards of 
16 leagues from the fliore, aflbrd fecure retreats 
and plenty of proper food for all the various kinds 

• I met with on the (horcs ne;r Scarharcugh^ fmall frag^- 

uicntJ of the '.rwtf rcJ c0r.1l, 


I N S C O T L A N D. 21 

of fiOi, and alfo fuitable places for each kind to de- 
pofu their fpawn in. 

" The fifhery at Scarborough only employs 105 
men, and brings in about 5250 1. per annum, a 
trifle to what it would produce, was there a canal 
from thence to Leeds and Maiichefier \ it is proba- 
ble it would then produce above ten times that fum, 
employ Ibme thouiands of men, give a comfortable 
and cheap fubfiftence to our manufadurers, keep 
the markets moderately reafonable, enable our ma- 
nufadluring towns to underfell our rivals, and pre- 
vent the hands, as is too often the cafe, raifing in- 
furrections, in every year of fcarcity, natural or 

On difcourfing with fome very intelligent fin:ier- 
men, Iwas informed ofa very lingular ph;Enomenon 
they annually obferve about the fpawning of fiili *. 
At the diflance of 4 or 5 leagues from (horc, during 
the months of July and Augufi^ it is remarked, 
that at the depth of 6 or 7 fathom from the furface, 
the water appears to be faturated with a thick jelly, 
filled with the 0^'^of fifh, which reaches 10 or 12 
fathoms deeper •, this is known by its adhering to 
the ropes the cobles anchor with when they are 
fifning, for they find the firft 6 or 7 fathom of rope 
free from fpawn. the next 10 or 12 covered with 
llimy matter, the remainder again free to the bot- 
tom. They fuppofc this gelatinous ftuffto fupply 
the new-born fry with food, and that it is alio ^ 

. * Mr. 0/^^ri obferved the fame in S. Lat. 3:^, 36, in his re- 
turn from China. The feamen call it ;he flowering of the 
water. A/. II, 72. 

C 3 prote^^ion 

22 A T O U R 

protet^ion to the fpawn, as being difagreeable to 
the larger fifh to fwim in. 

There is great variety of fifh brought on fliore ; 
hefides thofedefcribed as Britijh fifh, were two fpe- 
cies of Rays: the Whip-Ray has" alfb been taken 
here, and another fpecies of Weever ; but thefe 
are flibjedls more proper to be referred to 2. Fauna., 
than an Itinerary, for a minute defcripticn. 
July 10. Left Scarhcrough-, pafTcd over large moors to 
Robin Hood's Bay. On my road, obferved the 
AlumWorks. vaft m.ountains of alum ftone, from which that 
fait is thus extra(fled : It is firft calcined in great 
heaps, which continue burning by its own phlo- 
giflon, after being well fet on fire by coals, for fix, 
ten, or fourteen months, according to the fize of 
the heap, fbme being equal to a fmall hill. It is 
then thrown into pits and (leeped in water, to ex- 
traft all the faline particles. The liquor is then 
run into other pits, where the vitriolic falts are 
prascipitated, by the addition of a folution of the 
fal fod<e^ prepared from kelp; or by the volatile 
alkali of flale urine. The fuperfluous wattr b-jing 
then evaporated ducly by boiling in large furnaces, 
the liquor is fet to cool -, and laftly, is poured into 
large calks, to cryllallize. 

The alum works of this country are of fomc an- 
tiquity -, they were liilT; diicovercd by Sir Thomas 
Cbaloiier, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth j who 
cbl*erving the trees tinged with an unufual color, 
made him fufpicious of its being owing to fome 
mineral in the neighborhood. He found out that 
the- ftrata abounded with an aluminous fait. 



At that time, the K^gHP-i being ftrangers to the 
method of managing it, there is a tradition that Sir 
Thomas was obliged to feduce Ibme workmen from 
the Pope's alum-works near Rome, then the greateft 
in Europe. If one may judge from the curfe which 
his Holinefs thundered out againft Sir Thomns and 
the fugitives, he certainly was not a little enraged; 
for he curfed by the very form ih^t Ernulpbus * has 
left us, and not varied a tittle from that moft com- 
prehenfive of imprecations. 

The firft pits were near Gijborough, the feat of 
the Chcloners, who ftill fiourifh there, notwithftand- 
ing his Holinefs's anathema. The works were {o 
valuable as to be deemed a royal mine Sir Paul 
Pindnry who rented them, payed annually to the 
King 12,500 1. to the Earl of Miilgi'ave 1,6401. to 
Sir WilUatn Pennyman 600 1. kept 800 workmen in 
pay, and fold his alum at 26 1. per tun. But this 
rnonopoly was deftroyed on the death of Charles I. 
and the right rcftored to the proprietors. 

In thefe alum rocks are frequently found cornua 
ammoms^ and ot'.ier folTils, lodged in a ftony nodule. 
Jet is met with in thin fiat pieces, ex- Jet. 
ternally of the appearance of wood. According to 
Solims, Britain was famous for this foflll f . 

The fands near Rcl^in Hood's village v/ere covered 
with fifn of fevcral kinds, and with people who met 
the cobles in order to purchafe their cargo : the 

* Vide 7V//?r.7/« Shant/y. 

t Gagatis hie plurimus cplimnfqtie eji lapis : fi drtorem rt' 
^uiras, nigra gemmeui : Ji naturam aqua ardet, oleo rejlinguiiur : 
Ji poteftaicm ailritu cp.lej'a^us applicita delinet^ af^ue Jucctnum. 
C. xxiv. 

C 4 place 


place feemed as if a great fifh fair had been held 
there; fome were carrying off their bargains, others 
bufied in curing the fifh ; and a little out at fea was 
a fleet of cobles and five men boats, and others 
arriving to difcharge the capture of the preceding 
tides ■*. There are 36 of the fiift belonging to this 
I'ttle pl&ce. The houfes here make a grotcfque 
flippearance, are' fcattered over the face of a fleep 
cliff" in a very ftrange manner, and fill every pro- 
jeding ledge, one above anotiier, in the fame man- 
ner as tjiofe of the peafants in the rocky parts of 
China. Sand's End, Runwick, and Staitbes, three 
other fifliing-towns on this coafl, are (as 1 am told) 
built in the fame manner. 

The country through this day's journey was hilly, 
the coail: higli. Reach 

Whitby, called by the Saxons, Streanejhalch, or 
bay of the light-houfe, a large town, oddly ficuated 
between two hills, with a narrow channel running 
through the middle, extending about a mile farther 
vp the vale, where it widens, and forms a bay. 
The two parts of the town are joined by a good 
draw-bridge, for the conveniency of letting the 
(flipping pafs. From this bridge are often taken 
the viviparous Blenny,' whole back-bone is as 
green as that of the Sea Ncccie. The river that 
forms this harbor is the EJk, but its waters are 
very inconfiderable when the tide is out. Here is 
a pretty brifk trade in fliip building ; but except 
that, a imail manufaflurc of f.iil- cloth, and the 

• From hence the fifh are carried in machines to Dei'ht 
Litchjiela, Birmingham, and Worcejltr : the towns which lie be- 
yond the lad arc lup^ilied ffom the Weft of England. 


I N S G O T L A N D. 25 

hiring out of fhips as 2itScarhorcugh^ like that town 
it has fcarce any commerce. In is computed there 
are about 270 (hips belonging to this place. Of 
late, an attempt has been made to have a fhare in 
the Greenland fiihery -, four fhips were fent out, and 
had very good fuccefs. There are very good dry 
docks towards the end of the harbor ^ and at the 
rr.outh a moft beautiful pier. At this place is the 
crft falmon-fifhery on the coaft. 

On the hill above the S. fide of the tovv-n is a fine St. HiLWi 
ruin of St. Hilda's church. The fire was given to Church, 
that faint by Ofwy^ king of Ncr thumb erl and ^ about 
A. D. 657 ; poflibly in confequence of a vow he 
made to found half a dozen monafteries, and make 
his daughter a nun, fhould heaven favor his arms. 
St. Hilda founded a convent here for men and wo- 
men, dedicated it to St. Peier, and put it under 
the direction of an abbcfs. This eftabliOiment was 
ruined by the excurfions of the Danes ; but after 
the conqueft it was rebuilt, and filled with Bene- 
di^ines^ by Walter de Percy. In lefs enlightened 
times it was believed that not a wild goofe dared to 
fiy over this holy ground, and if it ventured was 
fure to fall precipitate and perilh in the attempt. 

Went about two miles along the fhore, then 
turned up into the country, a black and barren 
moor; obferved on the right a vaft artificial mounr, 
or Tumulus, called Freehurgh Hill, a monument, 
in all probability, the work of the Danes, v/hofe 
cuilom it was to fling up fuch Tumuli over the 
graves of their kings or leaders-, or, in memory of 
the flain in gcnrral, upon the fpot where they had 


2'-^ A T O U R 

obtained any great vidory. It is pofTiblethat this 
mount owned its rife to the viclory gained by Ivar, 
a Danijh prince, over Ella, king of Bcrnicia, "who 
was on his way fronn the North to fuccour 0/beri •, 
for we are told that Ivar, after defeating the lafl:, 
went from ^''ork to meet ILUa, and fought and Hew 
^ him on his march. 

At the end of this moor, about three miles from 
Gijborcu^h^ is a beautiful view over the remaining 
part of Torkjhire^ towards Durham^ Hartlepool^ and 
the mouth of the T'ees^ which meanders through a 
very rich tract. The country inftantly affumes a 
new face ; the road lies between moft delightful 
hills finely wooded, and the little vales between 
them very fertile ; on fome of the hills are the marks 
of the firft alum works, which were difcovered by 
Sir 'Thomas Ch a loner. 
CisBORorcK. GiSBOROUGH,afmalltown,'pleafantly fituatedina 
vale, furrounded at fome diftance by hills, and open 
on theeafttothefea, which is aboutfive milesdiftant. 
It is certainly a delightful fpot, but I cannot fee the 
reafon why Cambdcn compares it to Puteoli. Here 
w^s once a priory of the canons of the order of St. 
Jujiiny founded by Robert de Brus, 1 129, after the 
diflblotion granted by Edward VI. to the Chaloners: 
a very beautiful eafl window of the church is dill 
remaining. The town has at pref.nt a good manu- 
fadure of fail cloth. 

The country continues very fine quite to the 
banks of the TeeSy a confiderable river, which di- 
vides YorhflAre from the biflioprick of "Durham. 
After travelling 109 miles in a ftrait line through 



the firft, enter Durham^ crofnngthe river on a very 
handfome bridge of arches, the battlements 

neatly panneled with ftone; and reach 

Stockton, lying on the Tees inform of a cref- 
cent. A handfome town ; the principal ftreet is 
remarkably fine, being i6^ feet broad; and feveral 
Icficr (Ireets run into it at right angles. In the mid- 
dle of the great ftreet are neat fliambles, a town- 
honfe, and large afiembly-room. There is befides 
a large fquare. About a century ago, according to 
Anderfon^ it had fcarce a houfe that was not made 
of clay and thatch •, but is now a flourifliing place. 
Its manufa(fl:ure is fail cloth ; and great quantities 
of corn, and lead, (from the mineral parts of the 
county) are fent off from hence by commifTion. 
As the river does not admit of large vefTels fo high 
as the town, thofe commodities are fent down to be 

The falmon fiihery here is neglefted, for none 
are taken beyond what is necelTary to fupply the 
country. Smelts come up the river in the winter 
time. On the weft fide of the town ftood the caftle j 
what remained of it is at prefent converted into a 
barn. The country from hence to Durham is flat, 
very fertile, and much inclofed. Towards the weft 
is a fine view of the highlands of the country : thofe 
hills are part of that vaft ridge which commence 
in the north and deeply divide this portion of the 
kingdom ; and on that account are called by Camb^ 
den the Appennines of England. 

The approach to Durham is romantic, through Durham. 
a deep hollow, cloathed on each fide with wood. 


28 A T O U R 

The city is prerty large, but the buildings old. 
Part are on a plain, part on the fide of a hill. The 
abby, or cathedral, and the caftle, where the Bifhop 
lives when he reiides here, are on the fummit of a 
chfT, whofefoot is wafhed on two fides by the river 
IVere. The walks on the oppofite banks are very 
beautiful, flagged in the middle and paved on the 
fides, and are well kept. They are cut through 
the wood, impend over the river, and receive a 
venerable improvement from the caftle and anticnt 
cathedral which foar above. 

The lad is very old * j plain without, and fup- 
ported within by mafly pillars, deeply engraved 
wiih lozenge-like figures, and zigzag furrows : 
others are plain; and each forms a duller of pillars. 
The fl<.reen to the choir is wood covered with a 
coarfe carving. The choir neat, but without or- 

The chapter-houfe feems v^ry antient, and is in 
the form of a theatre. The cloifters large and 
handfome. All the monuments are defaced, ex- 
cept thatofBifliop Hatfield. The Prebendal houfes 
are very pleafantly fituated, and have a fine view 

There are two handfome bridges over the IVere 
to the walks ; and a third covered with houfes, 
which join the two parts of the town. This river 
produces Salmon, Trout, Roach, Dace, Minow, 
Loche, Bulhead, Sticklebacks, Lamprey, theleflx;r 
Lamprey, Eels, Smelt?: and Samlet, which are 
callefl here Rack riders, becaufe they apjiear in 

• Begun in 1093, ^y Bifliop If'illiam de Cariltpho. 

I4 winter, 

I N S C O T L A N D. 25 

winter, or bad weather ; Rack, in the northern dia- 

left, fignifying the driving of the clouds by tern. 

pefts. It is obferved here, that before thtry go off * 

to fpawn, thofe fifh are covered with a white llime. 

There is no inconfiderable m an u failure, at Bur- 
bcimy 'of fhalloons, tammies, ftripes and callaman- 
coes. I had heard on my road many complaints of 
the ecclefiaflical government this county is fubjeft 
to ; but, from the general face of the country, it 
feems to thrive wonderfully under them. 

Saw Coker, the feat of Mr. Ca}' •, a moil romantic Jvlt 13, 
fituation, layed out with great judgment; the walks 
are very extenfive, principally along the fides or at 
the bottom of deep dells, bounded with vaft preci- 
pices, finely wooded ; and many parts of the rocks 
are planted with vines, which I was told bore well, 
but late. The river fFere winds along the hollows, 
and forms two very fine reaches at the place where 
you enter thefe walks. Its waters are very clear, 
and its bottom afolid rock. The view towards the 
ruins of Fintbal- Abb^y is remarkably great ; and the 
walk beneath the cliffs has a magnificent folemnity, 
a fit retreat for its monaftic inhabitants. This was 
once called the Defert, and was the rude fcene of 
the auflerities of St. Godric, who carried them to 
the m-oft fenfelefs extravagance *. A fober mind 
may even at prefent be affedted with horror at the 


• St. Gocdric was born at Walpch in Ncrfolk, and being an 
itinerant merchant,- got acquainted with St. Cuthbert at Farn 
IJland. He made three pilgrimages to "Jernjalem ; at length, 
was warned by a vifion to fettle in the ceCcrt of Fhicbal. He 
lived an hermitical life there during 63 years, and prafliffd 
unheard-of auiterities : he wore an iion fiiirt next his ikin, 


S<i A T O U R 

profpefl from the fummits of tlie cliffs into a dark- 
fome and ftupendoiis chafm, rendered ftill more 
tremendous by the roaring of the waters over its 
diflant bottom. 

Pafll'd through CheJIer-Ie-Street, a fmall town, 
near which is Lumley-Cajtls^ the feat of the Earl of 
Scarborough \ a place, as I was told, very well 
worth feeing; but unfortunately it proved a public 
day, and I loft fight of it. The country, from 
Durham to Newcajlls, was very beautiful ; the 
rifings gentle, and prettily wooded, and the views 
agreeable \ that on the borders remarkably fine, 
there being, from an eminence not far from the 
capital of Northumberland^ an extenfive view of a 
rich country, watered by the coaly Tyne. Reach 
Xewcastie. Newcastle, a large, difagreeable, and dirty 
townj divided in two unequal parts by the river, 
and both fides very ftccp. 1 he lower parts are 
inhabited by Keelmen and their families, a muti- 
nous race •, for which realon this town is always 

The great bufincfs of the place is the coal trade. 
The collieries lie at difterent diftances, from five to 

dav and night, and wore out three : he mingled aflies with 
chc flour he ir.adc his bread of"; and, leall it fliould then be 
too i;ood, kct.t it three or four months before he ventured to 
eat it. In winter, as well as i'umnicr, he pall'od whole nights, 
tip to his chiti in water, at his devotions. Like St. Antony, 
he \^.as often haunted by iicnds in various fhapes ; fomctimes 
in form of beautiful damfcU, fo was vifited with evil con- 
cupilcence, which he cured by rolling naked among thorns 
and briars: his body grew ulcerated; but, toencreafj his pain, 
he' pouied fait into the wounds. Wrought many miracles, 
and died \\io. Britannia Jacra, 304. About ten years after 
his dcceafe, a Bencdiiiint priory of thirteen monks was founded 
there in hi» honor, by lluo^b PuJjcj, Biihop of Durham. 


I N S C O T L A N D. Ji 

eighteen miles from the river ; and the coal is 
broLiglit down in waggons along rail roads, and 
difcharged from covered buildings at the edge of 
the water into the keels or boats that are to convey 
it on fliipboard. Thefe boats are ftrong, clumfy and 
round, will carry about 25 tuns each; fometimesare 
navigated with a fquare fail, but generally are 
pufhed along with large poles. No fhips of large 
burthen can come up as high as Newcajile-, but arc 
obliged to lie at Shields^ a few miles down the river, 
where ftage coaches go thrice every day for the 
conveniency of pafTengers. This country is moft 
remarkably populous ; Nezvcajtle alone contains 
near 40,600 inhabitants ; and there are at left 400 
fail of fhips belonging to that town and its port. 
The^effcd of tlie vaft commerce of this place ia 
very apparent for many miles round ; the country 
is finely cultivated, and bears a molt thriving and 
opulent afpefl. 

Left NczaCiiJlk i the country in general flat; July 13. 
pafled by a large ftone column with three dials on 
the capital, with feveral fcripture texts on the fide«, 
called here Pigg'^ Folly, from the founder. 

A few miles further is Stanningtcn Bridge, a plea- 
fant village. Morpeth, a fmall town with a neat 
town-houfe, and a tower for the bell near it. The 
caftle was on a fmall eminence, but the remains are 
now very inconfiderable. Some attempt v/as made 
a few years ago to introduce the Manchefier n\zn\x- 
fadlure, but without fuccefs. There is a remarkable 
ftory of this place, thac the inhabitants reduced 
their own town to alhes, on the approach of* King 
4 John, 

32 A T O U R 

'John^ A. D. 1215, out of pure hatred to their rr^o- 
narch, in order that he might not find any (hclter 

This place gave birth to William Turner^ as Dr. 
Fuller exprefles it, an excellent Latinifi^ Gnecian^ 
Oratour^ and Poet j he might have added polemic 
divine, champion and fufferer in the protcflant 
caufe, phyfician and naturalift. His botanic wri- 
tings are among the firfl we had, and certainly the 
beft of them •, and his criticifms on the birds of 
Arijloth and Pliny ^ are very judicious. He was the 
firft: who flung any light on thofe fubjefls in our 
illand ; therefore clames from a naturalift this 
tribute to his memory *. ■ 

Felton^ a. pleafant village on the Coquet, which,- 
fome few miles lower, difcharges itfclf into the 
fea, oppofite to a fmall ifle of the fame name, re- 
markable for the multitudes of water- fowl which 
refort there to breed. 

Jft/tTcui At Alhzoick, a fmall town, the traveller is difap- 

Caftle. . . 

pointed with the fituation and environs of the caftle, 

the refidence of the Percies, the antient Earls of 

Northumberland. You look in vain for any marks 

of the grandeur of the feudal age •, for trophies 

won by a family eminent in our annals for military 

prowefs and deeds of chivalry ; for halls hung with 

helms and hauberks, or with the fpoils of the chace •, 

for cxtenfive forefts, and venerable oaks. You 

look in vain for the helmet on the tower, the antienc 

fignal ot hofpitaiity to tne traveller, or for the 

grey-headed porter to conduft him to the hall of 

• Ilewa? born in the reign of Henry VIII. died in 1568.- 


ytJL Jxac Sd-ajjir if". 

I N S C O T L A N D. JJ 

entertainment. The numerous train, whofe coun-« 
tenances gave welcome to him on his way, are now 
no more ; and inftead of the difinterefted ufher of 
the old times, he is attended by a valet eager to 
receive the fees of admittance. 

There is vaft grandeur in the appearance of the ^^c^ 

putfide of the caitle -, the towers magnificent, but ^^ ^ 
injured by the numbers of rude flatues crouded on ^/^ 
the battlements. The apartments are large, and 
lately finifhed in the gothic (lyle with a mod incom- 
patible elegance. The gardens are equally incon- 
fiftent, trim to thehigheft degree, and more adapted 
to a villa near hondon^ than the antient feat of a 
great Baron. In a word, nothing, except the num- 
bers of uninduftrious poor that fwarm at the gate, 
excites any one idea of its former circumilances. 

A flage further is Belford, the feat of Abraham 
Dixon, Efqj a modern houfe ; the front has a moft 
beautiful fimplicity in it. The grounds improved 
as far as the art of hufbandry can reach j the plan- 
tations large and flouriihing: a new and neat town, 
inftead of the former wretched cottages ; and an 
induftrious race, inftead of an idle poor, at prefent 
fill the eft ate. 

On an eminence on the fea coaft, about four BamhorougU 
miles from Belford, is the very antient caftle of ^*^^^^' 
Bamborcugh, built by Ida, firft king of the Nor- 
thumbrians, A. D. 548. But, according to the con- 
jecture of an antiquarian I met with there, on the 
fite of a Roman fortrefs. It was alfo his opinion, 
that the fquare tower was aftually the work of the 
Romans, It had been of great ftrength •, the hill it 

P. is 



13 founded on is exceflivcly deep on all fides, and 
accefTible only by flif^hts of ilcps on the fovith eaft. 
The ruins are Hill conlidcrable ; the remains of a 
great hall are very fingular •, it had been warmed 
by two fire-places of a vaft fize, and from the top 
of every window ran a flue, like that of a chimney, 
which reached the fummits of the battlements. 
Thefe flues feem defigned as fo many fupernu- 
rnerary chimnies, to give vent to the fmoke that 
tiie immenfe fires of thofe hofpitable times filled 
the rooms with : halls fmoky, but filled with 
good cheer, were in thofe days thought no incon- 
venience : thus my brave countryman Hovel ap 
Rys, when his enemies had fired his houfe about 
his ears, told his people to rife and defend them- 
felves like men, for fliame, for he hadknowne there 
CIS great e a fmoake in that hall upon a Chrijlmas even *. 
Many of the ruins are now filled with fand, caught 
up by the winds that rage here with great impe- 
tuofity, and carried to very diftant places. 

'Thi? caftle, and the manour belonging to it, was ' 
once the property of the Forjicrs ; but purchafcd 
BiHiop by Lord Crew^ Bifliop of Durham, and with other 

C/mv'sCha- confidcrable cftates, left veiled in Truilees, to be 
tay. ' , 

applied to unconfined charitable ufes. Three of 

thefe Truilees are a majority : one of them makes 

this place his refidcncc, and blcfles the coafi. by his 

judicious and humane application of the Prelate'^ 

generous bcqueft. He has repaired and rendered 

habitable the great fquare tower: the part refervcd 

^or himfclf and family is a large hall and a few 

fmallcr apartments ; but the reil of ihe fpacioua 

• Hijf. Gi<jet!itr familj, 118. 

t edifice 

I N S C O T L A N D. 3j 

edifice is allotted for purpofes which make the heart 
to glow with joy when thought of. The upper 
part is an ample granary •, from whence corn is 
difpenced to the poor without diftinilion, even ia 
the deareft time, at the rate of four {hillings a 
bufhcl ; and the diftrcfled, for many miles round, 
often experience the con veniency of this benefadtion. 

Other apartments are fitted up for the reception 
of fliipwrecked iailors j and bedding is provided 
for about thirty, fhould fuch a number happen to 
be call on (hore at the fame time. A conftantpa- 
trole is kept every ftormy night along this tera- 
peftuous coaft, for above eight miles, the length of 
the manour, by which means numbers of lives have 
been preferved. Many poor wretches are often 
found on the ihore in a flate of infenfibility •, but 
by timely relief, are foon brought to themfelves. 

It often happens, that fiiips ftrlke in fuch a man- 
ner on the rocks as to be capable of relief, in cafe 
numbers of people could be fuddenly affembled : 
for that purpofe a cannon * is fixed on the top of 
the tower, which is fired once, if the accident hap- 
pens in fuch a quarter ; twice, if in another, and 
thrice, if in fuch a place. By thefe fignals the 
country people are direded to the fpot they are to 
fly to •, and by this means, frequently preferve not 
only the crew, but even thci vefTel ; for machines 
of different kinds are always in readinefs to heave 
fnips out of their perillous fituation. 

* Once belonging so a Dutch frigate of 40 guns ; which, 
vvith all the crew, was loft oppofite to the caftlc, about fixty 
years ago, 

D 2 In 

3^ A T O U R 

In a word, all the fchcmes of this worthy Truflec 
have a humane and ufeful tendency : he fecmcd as 
if felcdted from his brethren for the fame purpofes 
as Spenftr tells us the firft of his* feven Bead/men m 
the houfe of holinejfc was. 

' The firft of tlicm, that cldeft was and beft, 

Of all the houfe had charge and governement, 
As guardian and fteward of the reft : 
His office was to give entertainement 
And lodging unto all that came and went: 
Not unto fuch as could him feaft againe. 
And doubly quite for that he on them fpent ; 
^ut fuch as want of harbour did conftraine ; 
Thofe, for Gou's faUe, his dewty was to entertaine. 

Farn Ides. Oppofite to Bainhoroiigh lie the Fani iflands^ 
which form two groupes of little ifles and rocks to 
the number of kvcntten, but at low water the 
points of others appear above the furface •, they all 
are diftinguifhed by particular names. The neareft 
ifle to the fhore is that called the Houfe I/land, 
which lies exaftly one mile 68 chains from the 
coaft : the mofl diftant is about feven or eight 
miles. They are rented for 1 61. p/r ^;;////w •* their 
produce is kelp, fome few feathers, and a few 
fcals» which the tenant watches and llioots for the 
fake of the oil and fkins. Some of them yield a 
little grafs, and fcrvc to feed a co%v or two, which 
the people arc dcfperacc enough to tranfpor: over 
in their little boats. 
July 15. Vifited thcfc iflands in a coble, a fafe but fccni- 
ingly hazardous fpccies of boat, long, narrow and 
fiat-bortomed, wliich is capable of going rhro' a 


iiii; ;,r;n,iii""iiiiii'l|ii''iiiiiiiii"iii "" ' 


high Tea, dancing like a cork on the fummits of 
the waves. 

Touched at the rock called the Afeg, whitened 
with the dung of corvorants v'hich almoll covered 
it ; their nefts were large, made of" tang, and moft 
excefTively foetid. 

Rowed next to the Pinnacles, an ifland in the 
fartheft groupe-, fo called from fome vaft columnar 
rocks at the fouth end, even at their fides, and flat 
at their tops, and entirely covered with guillemots 
and fhags : the fowlers pafs from one to the other 
of thefe columns by means of a narrow board, 
which they place from top to top, forming a nar- 
row bridge, over fuch a horrid gap, that the very 
fight of it ftrikes one with horror. 

Landed at a fmall ifiand, where we found the 
female Eider ducks * at that time fitting: the lower EiderDucks. 
part of their neils was made of fea plants ; the 
upper part was formed of the down which they 
pull off their own breads, in which the eggs were 
furrounded and warmly bedded : in fome were 
three, in others five eggs, of a large fize and pale 
olive color, as fmooth and gloflfy as if varniflied 
over. The nefts are built on the beach, among 
the loofe pebbles, not far from the water. The 
Ducks fit very clofe, nor will they rife till you al- 
moft tread on them. The Drakes feparate them- 
felves from the females during the breeding feafon. 
We robbed a few of their nefts of the down, and 
after carefully feparating it from the tang, found 

• Vide ^r. Zoel. II. 454. I have been informed that they 
alfo b;efd on Incb-Celm, in the Firth of Ferth» 

D 3 that 

A T O U K 

that the down of one ncfl weighed only three quar- 
ters of an ounce, but was fo elaftic as to fill the 
crown of the largcft hat. The people of this 
country call thefe St. Ciithbert's ducks, from the 
faint of the iflands*. 

Befides thefe birds, I obferved the following : 

, Puffins, called here 'Tom Noddies^ 
Auks, here Shouts t 
Black Guillemot, 
Little Auks, 
Black and white Gulls, 
Brown and white Gulls, 
Herring Gulls, whicii 1 was told fed fomc- 

times on eggs of other birds, 
Commc.n Gull, here AnnetSt 
Kittiwake?, or Tarrocks, 
Pewit Gulls, 
Great Terns, 
Sea Pics, 

Sea Larks, here Brokels, 
Jackdaws, ^vhich breed in rabbet- holes. 
Rock Pigeons, 
Rock Larks. 

The Terns were fo numerous, that in fome places 

• I mull here acknowlege my obligations to Jofeph Bankr, 
F.fq; who, previous to his circumnavigation, liberally per- 
mitted my artiil to take copies of his valuable colledlifin of 
Zoologic drawings, amongft others thofc of the Eiihrdnoki. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 59 

it was difficult to tread without crufliing fome of 


the cgss. 


The laft ide I vifited was the Houfe ijland, the 
fequeftered fpot where St. Cuthbert pafTed the two 
laft years of his life. Here was afterwards efta- 
bliflied a priory of Benedi^fines for fix or eight 
Monks fubordinate to" Durham. A fqiiare tower, 
the remains of a church, and fome other buildings, 
are to be feen there ftill ; and a ftone coffin, which, 
it is pretended, was that of St. Cuthbert. At the 
north end of the ifle is a deep chafm, frorti the top 
to the bottom of the rock, communicating to the 
fea ; through which, in tempeftuous weather, the 
water is forced with vafl violence and noife, and 
forms a fine Jet d'eau of fixty-fix feet high : it i^ 
called by the inhabitants of the oppofite coaft the 

Reached fnore through a moft turbulent rippling, 
occafioned by the fierce current of the tides be- 
tween the iflands and the coaft. 

Purfued my journey northward. Saw at a dif- i^.^^ ^^ 
tance the Cheviot hills ; on which, I was informed, 
the green Plovers breed ; and that, during winter, 
flocks innumerable of the great Bramblings, or ' 
Snow-flakes, appear -, the moil fouthern place of 
their migration, in large companies. 

The country almoft woodlefs, there being but 
one wood of any confcquence between Belford and 
Berwick. Saw on the left an antient tower, which 
fhewed the chark6ler of the times when it was un- 
happily neceflary, on thefe borders^ for every houfe 
to -be a fortrefs. 

D 4 On 


On the right, had a view of the fea, and, not re- 
mote from the land, of Lindesfarn^ or Holy Illand, 
once an epilcopal feat, afterwards trandated to 
Durham^ On it are the ruins of a caftle and a 
church. In feme parts are abundance of Entrochi^ 
which are called by the country people St. Cuth- 
herf's beads. 

After a few miles riding, have a full view of 
Berwick, and the river Tiveed winding weft ward 
for a confiderable way up the country ; but its 
banks were without any particular charms *, being 
almoft woodlefs. The river is broad ; and has over 
it a bridge of fixtcen very handfome arches, efpe- 
cially two next the town. 

Berwick is fortified in the modern way •, but is 
much contracted in its extent to what it was for- 
merly, the old caftle and works now lying at fome 
diftance beyond the prefent ramparts. The bar- 
racks are large, confift of a center and two wings. 
The church was built by Cromwcl, and, according 
to the fpirit of the builder, without a ftecple. Even 
in Northumberland^ (towards the borders) the ftee- 
ples grew lefs and lefs, and as it were forewarned 
the traveller that he was fpecdily to take leave of 
epifcopacy. The town-houfe has a large and hand- 
feme modern tower to it : the flrects in general 
are narrow and bad, except that in which the town- 
houfe ftands. 

Abundance of wool is exported from this town: 
eggs in vaft abundance colleded through all the 

• I was informed tbat the beautiful banks of the Tijuetd 
verify the old long at the paflage at ColJIreatn, 

4 country. 


country, almofl as far as Carlijle : they are packed 
in boxes, with the thick end downwards, and are 
fent to London for the ufe of fugar refiners. I was 
told that as many are exported as bring in annually 
the fum of fourteen thoufand pounds. 

The falmon fifheries here are very confiderable, Salmon 
and likewile bring in vafl fums : they lie on each ^^^^' 
fide the river •, and are all private property, ex- 
cept what belongs to the Dean and Chapter 
of Durham, which, in rent and tythc of fifh, 
brings in 450I. per am:, for all the other fiHieries 
are liable to tythe. The common rents of thofc 
are 50L a year, for which the tenants have as 
much iliore as ferves to launch out and draw their 
nets on fhore : the limits of each are flaked -, and 
I obferved that the fifhers never failed going as 
near as pcffible to their neighbour's limits. One 
man goes off in a fmall flat-bottomed boat, fquare 
at one end, and taking as large a circuit as his 
net admits, brings it on (bore at the extremity of 
his boundary, where others afTift in landing it. 
The befl fiihery is on the fouth fide * : very fine 
falmon trout are often taken here, which come up 
to fpawn from the fea, and return in the fame 
manner as the falmon do. The chief import is 
timber from Norway and the Bailie. 

Almoft immediately on leaving Berwick, enter 

* For a fuller account of this fifhery, vide Brltifh Zoology^ 
III. 241. to i: may be alfo added, that in the middle of the 
river, not a mile well of the town, is a large ilone, on 
which a man is placed, to obferve what is called the reck of 
the falmon coming up. 



A 1* O U R 


in the fliire of Merely or Afers *. A litde way from 
Berwick^ on the weft, is Halydon hill, famous for 
the overthrow of the Scots under the regent Doug- 
las^ by Edward III. on the attempt of the former 
to raiie the fiege of the town. A cruel adion 
blafted the laurels of the conqueror: Setoriy the 
governor, flipulated to furrender in fifteen days, 
if not relieved in that time, and gave his fon as 
hoftage for performance. The time elapfed ; 
Seton refufed to execute the agreement, and with 
a Roman unfeclingncfs beheld the unhappy youth 
hung before the walls. 

The entrance into Scotland has a very unpro- 
mifing look -, for it wanted, for fome miles, the 
cultivation of tlie parts more diftant from England : 
but the borders were necelTarily neglected •, for, till 
the acceftion c{ James VI. and even long after, the 
national enmity was kept up, and the borderers of 
both -countries difcouragcd from improvement, by 
the barbarous inroads of each nation. This inat- 
tention to agriculture continued till lately -, but on 
reaching tlie fmall village of Eytown^ the fcene was 
greatly altered ; the wretclied cottages, or rather 
hovels of the country, were vanifliing ; good com- 
fortable houfes arife in their (lead ; the lands are 
inclofing, and yield very good barley, oats, and 
clover ; the banks are planting : I fpeak in the 
prcfent tenfe ; for4here is dill a mixture of the 

* Boetbius fays, that in his time buflards were found in this 
county ; but they arc now extirpated : the hiltorian calls 
them Guftardei. Dcfc. Scot, xiii. 



1 N S C O T L A N D. 43 

old neglifrence left amidft the recent improvements, 
which look like the works of a new colony in a 
wreiched impoveriilied country. 

Soon after the country relapfes ; no arable land 
is feen ; but for four or live miles fucceeds the 
black joylefs he^iihy moor of Col^ : happi- Coldingh,iv:» 
ly, this is the whole fpecimen that remains of the 
many miles, which, not many years ago, were in 
the fame dreary unprofitable ftate. Near this was 
the convent of that name immortalized by the he- 
roifm of its Nuns ; who, to prcferve themfeives 
inviolate from the Danes^ cut off their lips and 
nofes ; and thus rendering themfeives objecls of 
horror, were, with their abbefs Ebba *, burnt in 
the monaftery by the difappointed favages. 

At the end of the moor came at once in fight of 
the Firth -'- of Forth ; a moft extcnfive profped"!: of 
that great arm of the fea, of the rich country of 
Eajt Lothian., the Bnfs IJle j and at a diftance, the 
ifle of Mry, the coaft of the county of Fife, and 
the country as far as Montr ofe. 

After o-oino; down a lonj? defcent, dine at Old 

DO O ' 

Cambus, at a mean houfe, in a poor village-, where 
I believe the Lord of the foil is often execrated by 
the weary traveller, for not enabling the tenant lo 
furnifli more comfortable accommodations, in fo 
confiderable a thoroughfare. 

*A.D. 870. 

f Bodoiria oi Tacitus, who defcribes the two Firths oi Clyde * 

zn<i Forih, and the intervening Ifthmas, with much proprie- 
ty, fpeaking of the fourth fuirmer Agncola had palTed in 
Britain, and how convenient he found this narrow traft for 
fhuctiiig out the enemy by his fortrefles, fays, AW; Glota 
(Firth o{ Clyde) et Bodotria, di-verji maris ajlu per immenfum 
ti'vedif angujio ta rarutn fpatio dirimuntur, Vit. Agr. 


44 A 1' O U R 

♦ The country becomes now extremely fine; 

bounded at a diftance, on one fide, by hills \ on 
the other, by the fea : the intervening fpace is as 
rich a trad of corn land as I ever faw i for Eaft 
Lothian is the Northamptonjhire of North Britain : 
the land is in many places manured with fea tang ; 
but I was informed, that the barley produced from 
it is much lighter than barley from other manure. 

On the fide of the hills, on the left, is Sir John 
Hairs, of Dunglas ; a fine fituation, with beautifull 
plantations. Pafs by Brcxmouth^ a large houfe of 
the Duke of Roxbcrcugh^ in a low fpot, with great 
woods furrounding it. Reach 
Dunbar. Dunbar : the chief ftreet broad and handfome ; 
the houfes built of ftone ; as is the cafe with moft 
of the towns in ScotUmd. There are fome fliipsfent 
annually from this place to Greenland, and the ex- 
ports of corn are pretty confiderable. The harbour 
is fafe, but fnjall •, its entrance narrow, and bound- 
ed by two rocks. Between the harbour and the 
Columnar callle is a very furprifing flratum of ftone, in 
fome refpefts rekmbling that of Giant's Caufcvjay 
in Ireland : it confifts of great columns of a red grit 
ftone, either triangular, quadrangular, pentangular, 
or hcxangular ; their diameter from one to two feet, 
their length at low water thirty, dipping or inclin- 
ing a little to the fouth. 

They are jointed, but not fo regularly, or fo 
plainly, as thofe that form the Giant's Caufeivay, 
The furface of feveral that had been torn ofFappear 
as a pavement of numbers of convex ends, probably 
unfwering to the concave bottoms of other joints 



I N S C O T L A N D. 45 

once incumbent on them. The fpace between the 
columns was filled with thin fepta of red and white 
fparry matter ; and veins of the fame pervaded the 
columns tranfverfely. This range of columns faces 
the north, with a point to the eaft, and extends in 
front about two hundred yards. The breadth is 
inconfiderable : the reft of the rock degenerates 
into fhapelefs mafTes of the fame fort of ftone, irre- 
gularly divided by thick fepta. This rock is called 
by the people of Dunbar, the IJle. 

Oppofite are the ruins of the caftle, feated on a 
rock above the fea ; underneath one part is a vaft 
cavern, compofed of a black and red ftone, which 
gives it a moft infernal appearance ; a fit reprefen- 
tation of the pit of Acheron, and wanted only to be 
peopled with witches to make the fcene complete : 
it appears to have been the dungeon, there being a 
formed paftage from above, where the poor pri- 
foners might have been let down, according to the 
barbarous cuftom of war in early days. There are 
in fome parts, where the rock did not clofe, the 
remains of walls ; for the openings are only natural 
fifTures -, but the founders of the caftle taking ad- 
vantage of this cavity, adding a little art to it, ren- 
dered it a moft complete and fecure prifon. 

On the other fide are two natural arches, throiic^h 
which the tide flowed ; under one was a fragment of 
wall, where there feems to have been a portal for 
the admiffion of men or provifions from fea : thro 
which, it is probable that Alexander Ramfay, in a 
ftormy night, reinforced the garrifon, in fpite of 
the fleet which lay before the place, when clofely * 


4^ A T O U R 

befieged by the Englijh^ in 1337, and galantly de- 
fended for nineteen weeks by that heroine black 
Jgnes^ Countels of March *. 

^ Through one of thefe afches was a mofl pic- 
turefque view of the Bafs IJle, with the fun fetting 
m full fplt-ndor ; through the other of the May 
ifland, gilt by its beams. 

Over the ruins of a window were the three legs, 
or arms of the Ifle of Ma7Jy a lion rampant, and a 
St. Andrew'' s crofs. 
juLviS. Rode within fight of T^antallon "caftle, now 4 
wretched ruin -, once the feat of the powerfull Ar- 
chibald Douglas^ Earl of Angus, which for fome 
time renfted all the efforts oi James V. to fubdue 

A little further, about a mile from the fiiorci 
2?r7/i Ifle. lies the Bcifs IQand, or rather rock, of a mod ftu- 
pendous height •, on the fouth fide tlie top appears 
of a conic fiiape, but the other over-hangs the fea 
in a molt tremendous manner. The caftle, which 
was once the flate prifon of Scotland^ is now neg- 
Je6led : it lies clofe to the edge of the precipice, 
facing the little village of Cajileton ; where 1 toke 
boat, in order to vifit this fingular fpot ; but the 
weather proved unfavorable, the wind blew io 
frcfh, and the waves ran fo high, that it was im- 
poiTible to attempt landing ; for even in cahncr 
weather it cannot be done without hazard, there 

* Buchanan, lib. ix. c. 25. The EtipIiJJj were obliged to 
defill from their entt rprize. yfgnes was cldcll daughter of Sir 
Thomas Randal, oi Snadoivn, Earl of Murray, and nephew 
tf) Ralert Bruce. She was called black Annes, fays Robert 
Lindefay, bccaufe file was black- (kinned. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 4X 

hclncr a fteep rock to afcend, and comnionly a 
crreat fwell, which often removes the boat while 
you afe fcaling the precipice 5 fo, in cafe of a falfe 
ftep, there is the chance of falling into a water 
almoft unfathomable. 

Various forts of water fowl repair annually to 
this rock to breed i but none in greater numbers 
than the Gannets^ or Solahd geefe, multitudes of Gannetj; 
which were then fitting on their nefts near the 
floping part of the ifle, and others flying over our 
boat : it is not permitted to fhoot at them, the 
place being farmed principally on account of the 
profit arifing from the fale of the young of thefe 
birds, and of the Kittiwake^ a fpecies of gull, fo 
called from its cry. The firft are fold at Edin- 
burgh * for twenty- pence apiece, and ferved up 
roafted a little before dinner. This is the only 
kind of provifion whofe price has not been ad- 
vanced ; for we learn from Mr. R^^y, that it was 
equally dear above a century ago -f. It is un- 
necefliary to fay more of this fmgular bird, as it 
has been very fully treated of in the fecond volume 
of the Britijk Zoology. 

With much difficulty landed at North Berwick^ 
three miles diftant from Cafdeton, the place we 
intended to return to. The firft is a fmall town, 
pleafantly fcated near a high c";nic hill, partly 

There is to be fold, by John Watson, Jun. at his Stand 
at x.htVon\X)\ Ei^inburgh,~ii\i iawiuii daysin the week, wind and 
^veather ferving, good and freth Solan Geel'e. Any who hav{j 
■ occafion for the lame may have them at rcafonable rates. 
Aug.^> 1768. Edinburgh Advcrtiser. 

t Rafi Itinerants, igz, 


4S A T O U R 

planted with trees : it is feen at a great diftanCCf 
and is called the Law of Berwick ; a name given to 
feveral other high hills in this part of the ifland. 
Frejion Pans, Pafs through Abberladie and Prejlon Pans : the 
laft takes its name from its falt-pans, there being a 
confiderablc work of that article ; alfo another of 
vitriol. Saw at a fmall diftance the field of battle, 
or rather of carnage, known by the name of the bat- 
tle oi Prefton Pans, where the Rebels gave a Icflbn 
of feverity, which was more than retaliated, the 
following fpring, at CuUoden. Obferved, in this day's 
ride, (I forget the fpot) the once princely feat of 
the Earl q>{ JVintoun^ now a ruin -, judicioufly lefc 
in that ftate, as a proper remembrance of the fad 
fate of thofe who engage in rebelhous politicks. 
There are great marks of improvement on ap- 
proaching the capital ; the roads good, the country 
very populous, numbers of manufactures carried 
on, and the profped embclliflied with gentlemen's 
feats. Reach 
Edinburgh EDINBURGH, 

A city that pofienes a boldnefs and grandeur of 
fituation beyond any that I had ever feen : it is 
buik on the edges and fides of a vaft Hoping rock, 
of a great and precipitous height at the upper ex- 
tremity, and the fides declining very quick and 
deep into the plain. The view of the houles at a 
diftance ftrikes the traveller with wonder ; their 
own loftinefs, improved by their almoft aerial fitu- 
ation, gives them a look of magnificence not to be 
found in any other part of Cireat Britahu All 
thefe confpicuous buildings form the upper part of 


fu ^A^ t h^ ' 4'^ 7(^c:s% 


the great ftreet, are of ftone, and make a handfome 
appearance : they are generally fix or feven ftories 
high in front ; but, by reafon of the declivity of 
the hill, much higher backward ; one in particular, 
called Babel, has about twelve or thirteen ftories. 
Every houfe has a common ftaircafe, and every 
ftory is the habitation of a feparate family. The 
inconvenience of this particular ftrudlure need not 
be mentioned ; notwithllanding the utmoft atten- 
tion, in the article of cleanlinefs, is in general 
obferved. The common complaint of the ftreets 
oi Edinburgh \s now taken away, by the great vigi- 
lance of the magiftrates *, and their feverity againfl: 
any that offend in any grofs degree i". It mull be 
obferved, that this unfortunate fpecies of archi- 
tefture arofe from the turbulence of the times in 
which it was in vogue ; every body was defirous of 
getting as near as poflible to the protection of the 
caftle, the houfes were crouded together, and I 
may fay, piled one upon another, merely on the 
principle of fecurity. 

The caftle is antient, but ftrong, placed on the Caftlc. 
fummit of the hill, at the edge of a very deep pre- 
cipice. Strangers are Ihewn a very fmail room, in 
which Mary Queen of Scots was delivered oi James 

* The ftreets are cleaned early every morning. Once the 
City payed for the cleaning ; at prefcnt, it is rented for 4 or 
500 1, per annum. 

f In the clofes, or allies, the inhabitants are very apt to 
fling out their filth, &c. without regarding who pafTes j bus 
the fuft'erer may call every inhabitant of the houfe it came 
from to account, and make them prove the delinquent, who 
is always punilhed with a heavy fine. 

E From 





A T O U R 

From this fortrefs is a full view of the city and 
its environs -, a ftrange profped: of rich country, 
with vaft rocks and mountains intermixed : on the 
fouth and eafl are the meadows, or the publick 
walks, Herriot's hofpital, part of the town over- 
fhadowed by the ftupcndous rocks of Arthur's, feat 
and Salujhury\ Craigs, the Pentland hills at a few 
miles diftance, and at a Itill greater, thofe ofMuir' 
foott whofe fides are covered with verdant turf. 

To the north is a full view of the Firth oi Forth, 
from ^teen's Ferry to its mouth, with its fouthern 
banks covered with towns and villages. On tlie 
whole, the profpedt is fingular, various and fine 

The refervoir of water * for fupplying the city 
lies in the Caftle-ftreet, and is well worth feeing : 
the great ciftern contains near two hundred and 
thirty tuns of water, which is conveyed to the feve- 
ral conduits, that are difpofed at proper diftances 
in the principal ftreets \ thefe are conveniences that 
few towns in North Britain are without. 

On the fouth fide of High-Jlreet, is the Parle- 
ment Clofe, a fmall fquare, in which is the Parlc- 
ment-Houfe, where the courts of juftice are held. 
Below flairs is tHe Advocate's library, founded by 
Sir George Mackenzie, and now contains above thirty 
thoufand volumes, and feveral manufcripts : among 
the more curious are the four Evangelifls, very 
legible, notwithftanding it is faid to be feverial 
hundred years old. 

St. Jerome^ Bible, wrote about the year i,ioo. 

* It is conveyed in pipes from the PentlandhWU five milcaj 

A Malabar] 

I N S C O T L A N D. >i 

A Malabar book, wrote on leaves of plants.' 

A Turkijh manufcript, illuminated in ibme parts 
like a miiTal. Elogium in fultan morad filium filii 
Soliman "Turcici. Script. CofiJiantinopoU. Anno Hegir^» 

A Cartulary, or records of the mona(lcries,fome 
very antient. 

A very large Bible, bound in four volumes •, 
illuftrated with fcripture prints, by the firft en- 
gravers, pafted in, and colle61ed at a vaft expence. 
There are befides great numbers of antiquities, not 
commonly (hewn, except enquired after. 

The Luckenbooth row, v/hich contains the Tol- 
hooth^ or city prifon, and the weighing-houfe, which 
brings in a revenue of ijOoX.per annum^ ftands in the 
middle of the high-itreet, and, with the guard- 
houfe, contributes to fpoil as fine a ftreet as mod 
in Europe^ being in fome parts eighty feet wide, 
and finely built. 

The exchange is a handfome modern building, 
in which is the cuftom-houfe : the firft is of no 
ufe, in its proper character -, for the merchants al- ~ 
ways chufd Handing in the open ftreet, expofed tq 
all kinds of weather. 

The old cathedral is now called the New Church, 
and is divided into four places of worfhip ; in one 
the Lords of the SefTions attend : there is alfo a 
throne and a canopy for his Majefty, fhouid he 
vifit this capital, and another for the Lord Coirj- 
mifTioner. There is no mufic either in this or any 
other of the Scotch churches, for Peg flill faints at 
the found of an organ. This is the more fur- 
E 2 prizing. 

3^ A TOUR 

prizing, as the Dutch, who have the fame cfta- 
bliftied religion, are extremely fond of thatfolemn 
inftrument -, and even in the great church of 
Geneva the Pfaimody is accompanied with an 

The fame church has a large tower, oddly ter- 
minated with a fort of crown. 

On the front of a houfe in the Nether Bowy are 
two fine profile heads of a man and woman, of 
Roman fculpture, fuppofcd to be thofe of Severus 
Sind Julia: but, as appears from an infcription * 
made by the perfon who put them into the wall, 
were miftaken tor yldam and Eve. 

Near the Trone church are the remains of the 
houfe once inhabited by Alary Stuart ; now a 

At the end of the Cannofigate-Street Hands Holy- 
Noly-Rood jIqq^ palace, orriginally an abby founded by David 
I. in 1 1 23. The towers on the N. W. fide were 
erefted by James V. together with other buildings, 
/or a royal refidence : according to the editor of 
Camhden, great part, except the towers above- 
mentioned, were burnt by Cromwel ; but the other 
towers, with the reft of this magnificent palace, as 
it now ftands, were executed by Six IVilliam Bruce^ 
by the diredions of Charles II. within is a beauti- 
full fquare, with piazzas on every fide. It contains 
great numbers of fine apartments *, fome, that are 
called the King's, are in great diforder ; the reft 
are granted to feveral of the nobility. 

In the Earl of Breadalbane''sy arc fome excellent 

• In fuu'ore I'ultus tui 'vejceris pane. An nO 162 1. Thcft 
heads are well engrsvenin iter^fn's. Itinerary, tab. iii. 


O T L A N D. 55 

portraits, particularly three full lengths, remark-' 
ably fine, by Vandyck^ of 

Henry Earl of Holland^ 

TVilliam Duke of Newcajik, 

Charles Earl of IVarivick *, 

And by Sir P^ter Lely, the Duke and Dutchefs 
of Lauderdale^ and Edward Earl of Jerfey, There 
is befides a very good head of a boy, by MorrilUo^^ 
and fome views of the fine fcenes near his Lord- 
fhip's feat at Taymouth. 

At Lord Dumnore\ lodgings is a very large piece 
of Charles I. and his Queen going to ride, with the 
fky fhowering rofes on them ; a Black holds a grey 
horfe, a boy a fpaniel, with feveral other dogs 
fporting round : the Queen is painted with a love- 
lock, and with browner hair and compkdlion, and 
younger, than I ever fa\f her drawn. It is a good 
piece, and faid to be done by Vandyck. In the fame 
place are two other good portraits of Charles II. and 
James VII. 

The gallery of this palace takes np one fide, and 
is filled with coloflfal portraits of the Kings of Scot- 

In the old towers are (howen the apartments 
where the murther of David Rizzo was committed. 

That beautiful piece of golhic architefture the Chapel* 
church, or chapel, of Holy- Rood- Abby, is now a 
ruin, the foof having fell in, by a moft fcandalous 
negleft, notwithftanding money had b'ien granted 
by Government to preferve it entire. Beneath the 
ruins lie the bodies of James IL and James V. 

• I am informed that the portraits of the j^iitfls of HellanJ 
and Warivick are now removed to Tajmuntb^ 

E 3 Henr 

54, . A T O U R 

Her.ry Darnly^ and feveral ptrfons of rank: and the 
infcriptions on feveral of their tombs are preferved 
by Maitland. A gentleman informed me, that 
fome years ago he had feenthe remains of the bodies, 
but in a very decayed flate •, the beards remained 
on fome ; and that the bones of Henry Damly 
proved their owner, by their great fize, for he was" 
faiJ to be fcven feet high. 
Parks. Near this palace are the Parks firft inclofed by 
James V. within are the vart" rocks * known by the 
names oi Arthur\ Seat and Snlufhury''^ Craigs ; their 
fronts exhibit a romantic and wild fcene of broken 
rocks and vail precipices, which from fome points 
feem to over-hang the lower parts of the city. 
Great columns of flone, from forty to fifty feet in 
length, and about two feet in diameter, regularly 
-pentagonal, or hexagonal, hang down the face of 
fome of tnefe rocks almoft: perpendicularly, or with 
a very flight dip, and form a'ftrange appearance. 
Confidcrable quantities of ftone from the quarries 
have been cut and fent to London for paving the 
llreets, its great hardnefs rendering it excellent for 
that purpofe. Beneath thtfc hills are fome of the 
moft beautiful walks about Edinburgh, command- 
ing a fine profpeft over fcviral" parts of the country. 
On one fide of the .P-^r^ are the ruins of Si.An- 
thonyh chapel, once the refort of numberlefs vo- 
HerrinrsHoC- The fouih part of the city has feveral things 
pital. worth yifuing. Herriot\ hofpital is a fine old 
buildin^> much too magnificent for the end pro- 

* AccordiW to Maitland, their perpendicular height is 
656 feet. " v-^ 

, - pofed, : 

I N S C O T L A N D. 55 

pofed, that of educating poor children : it was 
founded by George Herriot, jeweller to James VL 
who followed that monarch to London^ and made 
a large fortune. There is a fine view of the caftle 
and the Hoping part of the city from the front : 
the gardens were formerly the refort of the gay ; 
and there the Scotch Poets often laid, in their co- 
medies, the fcenes of intrigue. 

In the church-yard of the Grey Friers is the mo- 
nument of Sir George Mackenfic^^ a rotunda ; with a 
multitude of other tombs j this, and another near 
the Cannon-gate being the only casmeteries to this 
populous city. 

The college is a mean building ; but no one re- College, 
fides in it except the Principal, v/hofe houfe is fup- 
pofed to be on the fite of that in \^\\\z\\'H.enry Darnly 
was murdered, then belonging to the Provoll of the 
Kirk of Field. The ftudents of tHe univerfity arc 
difper fed over the town, and are about fix hundred 
in number: they wear no habit, nor are they fubje6t 
to any regulations j but, as they are for the moft 
part volunteers for knowlege, few of them defert 
her flandards. There are twenty-two profeflbrs of 
different fciences, moft of whom read ledurcs: all 
the chairs are very ably filled ; thofe in particular 
which relate to the ftudy of medicine, as is evident 
from the number of ingenious phyficians, eleves of 
this univerfity, who prove the abilities of their maf- 
ters. The Mtif^um had, for many years, been 
neglefted ; but, by the adiduity of the prefentPro- 
feffor of natural hiftory, bids fair to become a moft 
inftrudive repofitory of the naturalia of thefc king- 

E 4 The 

5^ A T O U R 

Infirmary. The royal infirmary is a fpatious and handfomc 
ffdifice, capable of containing two hundred patients. 
The operation-room is particularly convenient, the 
counc:l-room elegant, with a good picture in it of 
Frovoft Drtunmond. From the cupolo of this 
building is a fine profpcd, and a full view of the 

Not far from hence are twenty-feven acres of 
ground, defigned for a fquare, called Gecrge ^qiiare: 
a fmall portion is at prefent built, confifting of 
fmall but commodious houfes, in the Englijh 
falhion. Such is the Ipirit of improvement, that 
•within thefe three years fixty thoufand pounds 
have been expended in houfes in the modern tafte, 
and twenty thoufand in the old. 

Watjon\ hofpital fhould not be forgot : a large 
good building, behind the Grey Friers church j an 
excellent inftitution for the educating and appren- 
iicing the children of decayed merchants ; who, 
after having fcrved their time with credit, receive 
fifty pounds to fet up with. 

The meadows^ or public walks, are well planted, 
and are very extenfive : thefe are the mall of Edin- 
burgh, as Comely Gardens are its l/auxhalL 

The Cowgate is a long ftreet, running parallel 
with the High Street^ beneath the lleep fouthern 
declivity of the city, and terminates in the Grafs- 
Market^ a wjdp ftreet, where cattle are fold, and 
criminals executed. On fcveral of the houfes are 
fmall iron crofTes, which, I was informed, denoted 
that they once belonged to the Knights of St. 



On the north fide of the city lies the new town, 
which is planned with great judgement, and will 
prove a magnificent addition to Edinburgh ; the 
houfes in St. Andrew's fquare coft from 1800I. to 
2000I. each, and one or two 4000 or 5000I. They 
are all built in the modern ftyle, and are free from 
the inconveniences attending the* old city. 

Th-fe improvements are connected to the city 
by a very beautiful bridge, whofe higheft arch is 
ninety-five ittt high. 

In the walk of this evening, I palTed by a deep 
and wide hollow beneath Calton Hill, the place 
where thofe imaginary criminals, witches and for- 
cerers in lefs enlightened times, were burnt ; and 
where, at feftive feafons, the gay and gallant held 
their tilts and tournaments: atone of thefe, it is 
faid, that the Earl of Bothwell made the firft im- 
preflion on the fufceptible heart of Mary Stuart^) 
having galopped into the ring down the dangerous 
fleeps of the adjacent hill ; for he feemed to think 

Women, born to be control'd. 
Stoop to the forward and the bold. 

Thefe defperate feats were the humour of the 
times of chivalry : Brantome relates, that the Due 
de Nemours galopped down the fleps of the Sainte 
Ckappel at Paris, to the aflonilhment of the be- 
holders. The men cultivated every exercife that 
could preferve or improve their bodily ftrength j 
the ladies, every art that tended to improve their 
charms : Mary is reported to have ufed a bath of 
white wine ; a cuftom ftrange, but not without 
precedent. Jaques du FouiUoux, enraptured with a 
* country 

5% A T O U R 

country girl, enumerating the arts which flie fcornctl 
to life to improve her perfon, mentions rhis ; 
Point ne portoit de ce linge femelle 
Pour amoindrir fon feing et fa mammelle. 
Vafquine nulle, ou aucun peli^oa 
Elle ne portoit, ce n'eftoit fa fa^on. 
Point nc prcnajt 'vin blanc pour fe 'baignery 
Ne drogue encore pour fon corps alleger *, 

'At a fmall walk's diftance from Colion Hill lies 
the new botanic garden -f-, cqnfiftingof five acres 
of ground, a green- houfe fifty feet long, two tem- 
perate rooms, each twelve feet, and two floves, 
each twenty-eight : the ground rifes to the north, 
and defends the plants from the cold winds : the 
foil a light fand, with a black earth on the furface. 
It is finely flocked with plants, whofe arrangement 
and cultivation do much credit to my worthy friend 
Dr. Hope, ProfcITor of Botany, who planned and 
executed the whole. It was begun in 1764, being 
founded by the munificence of his prefent Majefty, 
who granted fifteen hundred pounds for that pur- 
pofe. , 

During this week's flay at Edinburgh, the prices 
of provifions were as follow : 

Beef, from ^d. to 3d. ^, 

Mutton, from 4d. to 3d. ^. 

Veal, from 5d. to 3d. 

J^amb, 2d. ■^. 

Bacon, 7d. 
Butter, in fummer, 8d. in winter, is. 

* VAdokfcenct dt Jaqucs dff Fouilhux, % 2. 
f The old botanic garden lies to the eaft of the new bridge ; 
an account of it is to be feen in the Mu/tim £it!/ouria»tm. ; 


I N S C O T L A N D; 59 

Pigeons, /(^r dozen, from 8d. to 5s. • 

Chickens, per pair, 8d. to is, 

A fowl, IS. 2d. 

Green goofe, 3s. 

Fat goofe, 2s. 6d. 

Large turkey, 4s. or 5s. 

Pig, 2 s. 

Coals, 5d. or 6d. per hundred, delivered. 
Many fine excurfions may be made at a fmall 
diftance from this city. Leith, a large town, about Leit% 
two miles north, lies on the Firth, is a flourifhing 
place, and the port of Edinburgh. The town is 
dirty and ill built, and chiefly inhabited by failors -, . ^ 

but the pier is very fine, and is a much- frequented 
walk. The races were at this time on the fands, 
near low-water mark : confidering their vicinity to 
a great city and populous country, the meeting was 
far from numerous ; a proof that dilTipation has 
not generally infefted the manners of the North 

Craigmellar caflle is feated on a rocky eminence, 
about two miles fouth of Edifiburghy is fquare, and 
has towers at each corner. Some few apartments 
are yet inhabited ; but the reft of this great pile is 
in ruins. 

Ne-zvhitle, the feat of the Marquifs of Lothian, 
is a pleafant ride of a few miles from the capital. 
It was once siCiJiercian abby, founded, by David I. 
in II 40 •, but, in 1 59 1, was ere died into a lordfhip, • 
in favour of Sir Alark Ker, fon of Sir Walter Ker, of 
Cefsford. The houfe lies in a warm bottom, and, 
like moll other of the houfes of the Scotch nobility, 


<^o A T O U R 

rcfembles a French Chateau, by having a village or 
little paltry town adjacent. 1 he fituation is very 
favorable to trees, as appears by the vaft fize of thofe 
near the houfe ; and I was informed, that fruit 
ripens here within ten days as early as at Chelfea. 

The Marquifs poflelTes a moil valuable colkdion 
of portraits, many of them very fine, and alraoft 
all very inftruftive : a large half-length of Henry 
Barnly reprefents him tall, aukvvard and gauky, 
with a ftupid, infipid countenance -, mod likely 
drawn after he had loft, by intemperance and de- 
bauchery, thofe charms which captivated the heart 
of the amorous Mary. 

A head of her mother, Marie de Guife; not lefs 
beautifuil than !re.r daughter. 

A head of Madame Monpenfter, and of feveral 
other illuflrious perfons, who graced the court of 
Louis XIII. 

Prince Rupert and Prince Mciuric£y in one piece. 

Some Imall portraits, ftudies of Fa^idyk ; among 
which n one of ff^^ilLam Earl of Pembroke, of whom 
Lord Clarendon gives fo advantageous a charadlcr. 

A beautifuil l\alf-length of Henrietta, Queen of 
Charles I. her charms almoft apologize for the com- 
pliances of the uxorious monarch. 

His daughter, the Dutchefs of Orleans. 

The wife of Philip the bold, infcribed Margci 
Mala, Lodo Mala. 

Head of Robert Car, Earl of ^omcrfet ; the coun- 
tenance effeminate, fmall features, light flaxen or 
yellowifli hair, and a very fmall beard : is an ori- 
ginal of that worthlefs favorite, and proves that 



the figure given as his among the illuflrious heads 
is erroneous, the lail being reprefented as a robuft 
black man. 

His father. Sir Robert Car. 

An Earl of Somerjet^ of whom I could get no 
account -, handfomci with long light hair inclining 
to yellow : a head. 

A full length of James I. by Jamefon. Another 
of Charles I. when young, in rich armour, black 
and gold : a capital piece. 

Lady Tufion ; a fine half-length. 

Earl Morton^ regent: half-length; a yellow beard. 

Two very curious half-lengths on wood : one of 
a man with a long forked black beard ; his jacket 
flaflied down in narrow flripes from top to bottom, 
and the ftripes loofe : the other with a black full 
beard, the fame fort of ftripes, but drawn tight by 
a girdle. 

The Doge of Venice^ by Titian. 

Three by Morillio \ boys and girls in low life. 

A remarkable fine piece of our three firft cir- 
cum-navigatorsj Drake, Hawkins and Candifi, half- 

The heads of Mark Earl of Lothian , and his 
lady, by Sir Antonio More. 

Mark Ker, prior of Neivbottki who, at the refor- 
mation, complied with the times, and got the 
eftate of the abby. 

In the woods adjacent to this feat are fomc fub- Subterranc 
terraneous apartments and pafTages cut out of the ^^^ rooms, 
live rock. A few miles diftant from there, near 
Hawthorn-Den, the refidence of the celebrated poet 


Cz A T O U R 

T>rummond *, are, as I was informed, others of the 
fame nature, but of greater extent, which Do6lor 
Stukely + calls a Pi^i/h caftle. Thefe places, in 
fa6t, were excavated by the antient inhabitants of 
the country, either as receptacles for their provi- 
fions, or for retreats for themfelves or families, in 
time of war, in the fame manner as Tacitus relates 
was the cuftom of the Germam J. 

Two or three miles diftant from Newhottk is 
Dalkeith. Dalkeith, a fmall town, adjoining to D^/^'<:///:'-hoiife, 
the feat of the Duke of Bucckugh : originally the 
property of the Douglafes, and was, when in form 
of a caftle, of great ftrength •, and, during the 
time of the Regent Morton'% retreat, ftyled the 
Lion's Ben, 

The portraits at Dalkeith are numerous, and 
fome good : among others, the 

Firft Duke of Richnond and his Dutchefs. 

The Dutchefs of Cleveland. 

Countefs of Buccleugb, mother to the Dutchefs 
of Monmouth, and Lady Eglintcn, her fifter. 

The Dutchefs and her two fons : the Dutchefs of 
Tork ; her hand remarkably fine : the Dutchefs of 

Mrs. Sufanna JVaters, mother of the Duke of 
McJimouth, with his pifture in her hand. 

• Who is faid to have compofed his poems in one of thefe 
caves : he flourKhcd in the time of 'Ja>/i:s VI. 

f Vide Ithi. Curio/um. 50. tab. 3B. 

J Solent €t Jul)tcrrdHeos fptcui aperire, ecfque muUo infuptrjimo 
OMCrantf/uff'ugiiimhiemi, et rectptaculum frugtbu!, quia rigorem 
frigorum ejnjmodi iocis molliunt : et ft quando lioftii advenit 
aperta pofulalur : Abdita autem et defojfa, ignorant ur, aut to ipf» 
fallunt, quod luarenda Junt . De Moribus Gcrmanor. c. 16. 


I N S C O T L A N D. Cj 

Dutchcfs of Cleveland and her ion, an infant ; 
fhe in character of a Madonna : fine. 

The Duke of Monmouth, in charafter of a young 
St. John. 

Lord Strafford and his Secretary ; a fmall fludy 
of Vandyk. 

Henry VIII. and Queen Catherine, with the di- 
vorce in her hand ; two fmall pieces, by Holbein* 
Anna Mullein, by the fame, dreffed in a black gown, 
large yellow netted fleeves, in a black cap, peaked 

Lady Jane Gray, with long hair, black and very 
thick ; not handfome •, but the virtues and the in- 
tclledtual perfections of that fuffering innocent, 
more than fupplied the abfence of perfonal charms. 

A large fpirited pidure of the Duke oi Monmouth 
on hoifeback. The fame in armour. All his pic- 
tures have a handfome likenefs of his father. 

Dutchefs of Richmond^ with a bow in her hand, 
by Sir Peter Leiy. A fine head of the late Duke of- 

A beautiful! head o^ Mary Stuart ; the face fiiarp, 
thin and young ; yet has a likenefs to fome others 
of her pictures done before misfortunes had altered 
her ; her drefs a ftrait gown, open at the top and 
reaching to her cars, a fmall cap, and fmall ruff, 
with a red rofe in her hand. 

In this palace is a room entirely furnifned by 
Charles \l. on occafion of the marriage oi Mon- 
mouth with the heirefs of the houfe *. 

• Since this, I have been informed that not far from Dal' 

keith, at Rcfslyn, is a mod beautiful! and entire chapel of go- 

thic archiiedure, well worth a vifit from a curious Traveller, 

2 At 

$4 A T O U R 

AiSmefotiy another feat of the Duke oi Buccleugh^ 
a mile diftant •'^rom tlie firft, is a fine half-length of 
General Mo7ik looking over his Ihoulder, with his 
back towards you : he refided long at Dalkeith^ 
when he commanded in Scotland, 
Nell G'wimic, loofely attired. 
A fine marriage of St. Catherine^ by Vandyk, 
July Z4. Left Edinburgh, and pafs'd beneath the caftle, 

whofe height and ftrength, in my then fituation, 
appeared to great advantage. The country I paft 
through was well cultivated, the fields large, but 
moftly inclofed with flone walls -, for hedges are not 
yet become univerfal in this part of the kingdom : 
it is not a century fince they were known here. 
Reach the 

South-Ferry^ a fmall village on the banks of the 
Firth, which fuddenly is contracted to the breadth 
of two miles by the jutting out of the land on both 
fhores -, but almoft inftantly widens, towards the 
weft, into a fine and extenfive bay. The profpecft 
on each fide is very beautifull ; a rich country, 
frequently diverfified with towns, villages, caftles, 
and gentlemen's feats *. There is befide a vaft 
view up and down the Firth, from its extremity, 
not remote from Sterling, to its mouth near Mey 
ifle ; in all, about fixty miles. 

This Ferry is alfo culled ^teen'^s -Ferry ^ being the 
paflage much ufed i" by Margaret, queen to Mal- 
com III. and fifter to Edgar Etheling^ her refidencc 

• Such as Scith caftl«, Dumfcrlinc town, Lord Mcrn's^s, 
Lord Hopetoun'i, Captain DundaJ's''%. 

■\ Or, as others fay, bccaulc fhe, her brother and filler, firfl 
landed there, after their efcapc from Williavi the Conqueror. 




being at Bumfcrline. Crofs over in an excellent 
pafTage-boa,: ; obferve midway the little ifle called 
Inch-Garvey^ with the ruin of a Imall caftle. An 
ar5lic gull flew near the boat, purfued by other 
gulls, as birds of prey are : this is the fpecies that 
perfecutes and purfues the leiler kinds, till they 
mute through fear, when it catches up their excre- 
ments e'er they reach the water : the boatmen, on 
that account, flyled it the dirty AuliH. 

Landed in the (hire of Fife *, at North Ferry^ Granite 
near which arc the great granite quarries, which quarry. 
help to fupply the ftreets of London with paving 
ftones j many Ihips then waiting near, in order to 
take in their lading. The granite lies in great per- 
pendicular flacks ; above which, a reddifli earth 
filled with friable micaceous nodules. The granite 
itfelf is very hard, and is all blailed with gun- 
powder : the cutting into Ihape for paving cods 
two (hillings and eight pence per tun, and the 
freight to London feven (hillings. 

The country, as far as Kinrofs, is very fine, con- 
fifting of gentle rifings -, much corn, efpecially 
Bear 'i but few trees, except about a gentleman's 
feat, called Blair ^ where there are great and flou- 
rifhing plantations. Near the road are the lafl 
collieries in Scotland, except the mconfiderable 
works in the county of Sutherland. 

Kinrofs is a fmall town, feated in a large plain, 
bounded by mountains j the houfes and trees are 
fd intermixed as to give it an agreeable appearance. 
It has fome manufa6lures of linnen and cutlery 

• Part of the antient Caledonia., 

F ware. 

t^ . A T O U R 

v/are. At this time was a meeting of juftices, on 
a fingular occafion : a vagrant had been, not long 
before, ordered to be whipped -, but fuch was the 
point of honor among the common people, that no 
one coLild be perkiadcd to go to Perth for the execu- 
tioner, who lived there : to prefs, I may fay, two men 
for that fervice was the caufe of the meeting •, fo Mr. 
Bofwell may rejoice to find the notion of honor pre- 
vale in as exalted a degree among his own country- 
men as among the virtuous Corficans *. 

Not far from the town is the houfe of Kinrofs^ 
built by the famous architefl Sir IVilliam Bruce^ for 
his own refidence, and was the firft good houfe in 
North Britain : it is a large, elegant, but plain 
building", the hall is fifty-two feet long, the grounds 
about it well planted, the fine lake adjacent -, fo 
that it is capable of being made as dclightfull a 
place as any in North Britain. 

Lough-Leven-, a magnificent piece of water, very 
broad, but irregularly indented, is about twelve 
miles in circumference, and its greateft depth about 
twenty-four fathoms: is finely bounded by moun- 
tains on one fide ; on the other, by the plain of 
Kinrofs^&nd prettily embellillied with feveral groves, 
moft fortunately difpofed. Some iflands are dif- 
perfed in this great expanfe of v;ater-, one of which 
is large enough to feed feveral head of cattle ; but 
the moft remarkable is that dillinguiflied by the 
captivity of A'/^ry 5'///^7r/, 'which (lands almoft in 
the middle of the lake. The caille ilill icnTains ; 
confills of a fquare to\\er, a fmall yard with two 
• Jl/j?. Cvrfua. p. 285, of the third edition. 




round towers, a chapel, and the ruins of a building, 
where, it is faid, the unfortunate Princefs was lodged. 
In the fqiiare tower is a dungeon with a vaulted 
room above, over which had been three other {lo- 
ries. Some trees are yet remaining on this little 
fpot ; probably coeval with Mary^ under whofe 
fiiade (he may have fat, expeding her ei'cape at 
length efredlcd by the enamoured Douglas *. This 
caftle had* before been a royal refidence, but not 
for captive monarchs -, having been granted from 
the crown hy Robert III. to Douglas^ Laird oiLoch»_ 

St. Serfs ifle is noted for having been granted 
by Brnde^ laft King of the Pi'^s^ to St. Servan and 
the Culdeesi a kind of priefts among the firft Chrif- 
tians of North Britain, who led a fort of monaftic 
life in cells, and for a confiderable time preferved • 
a pure and uncorrupt religion ; at length, in the 
reign of David I. were fupprelTed in favor of the 
church of Rome. The priory of Port-jnonk vfas on - 

this iQe, of which fome fmallremains yet exift. 

The fifli of this lake are Pike, fmall Perch, fine Filh Ss birds. 
Eels, and moft excellent Trouts ; the beft and the 
reddefl I ever faw •, the largeft about fix pounds in 
weight. The fifiiermen gave me an account of a 
fpecies they called the Gaily Trout, which are only- 
caught from 0<^<7Z'^r to January; are fplit, faked and 

* Kiftorlans differ in refpeft to the caufe that influenced him 
to aflifl in his fovereign's efcape ; fome attribute it to his ava- 
rice, and think he was bribed with jewels, referved by Mary ; 
others, that he was touched by a more generous paflTion : the 
laft opinion is the moft natural, confidering the charms of the 
Queen and the youth of her deliverer. 

F 2 dried. 

6S A T O U R 

cried, for winter provifion : by the delcriptlon, they 
certainly were our Char, only of a larger fize than 
any we have in England^ or IFales^ fome being two 
feet and a half long. The birds that breed on the 
illes, are Herring Gulls, Pewit Gulls, and great 
Terns, called here Piclarnes. 

Lay at a good inn, a fingle houfe, about half a 
mile North of Kinrofs, 
TuLV 25. Made an cxcurfion about feven miles well, to fee 

Rumbling ^^^ rumbling brig at Glen-devon, a bridge of one 
arch, flung over a chafm worn by the river Devon, 
about eighty feet deep, very narrow, and horrible 
to look down ; the bottom, in many parts, is covered 
with fragments of rocks; in others, the waters arc 
vifible, gulhing between the ftones with great vio- 
lence : the fides, in many places, projed, and al- 
moll lock in each other; trees fhoot out in various 
fpots, and contribute to encreafe the gloom of the 
glen, while the ear is filled with the cawing of daws, 
the cooing of wood-pigeons, and the impetuous 
noife of the waters. 
Canvdrox ^ ""^il^ lowcr down is the Caivdron Glen: here 

Ckn. fhe river, after a fliort fall, drops on rocks hollowed 

in aftrange manner into large and deep cylindric 
cavities, open on one fide, or formed into great 
circular cavities, like cauldrons * : from whence 
the name of the place : one in particular has the 
appearance of a vaft brewing veflcl ; and the water, 
by its great agitation, has acquired a yellow fcum> 

• Jn Snutden, and the North of Germany, fuch holes at thefe 
are called Grant't Pots. Kalm's Voy.. I. 121. and Ph, Trauf, 
utrlJg. V. 165, 

2 exadly 


exadlly refembling the yefty working of male liquor, 
Juil beneath this the water darts down about thirty 
feet in form of a great white flieet : the rocks below 
widen confiderably, and their clifty fides are fringed 
with wood. Beyond is a view of a fine meadowy 
vale, and the diftant mountains near Sisrling. 

Two miles north is Caftk Campbell^ feated on a Cadle CW;/- 
lleep peninfulated rock between vafl: mountains, 
having to the fouth a boundlefs view through a 
deep glen fhagged with brufh wood •, for the forefts 
that once covered the country are now entirely de- 
ftroyed. Formerly, from its darkfome fituation, 
this pile was called the caftle oi Gloom ; and all th« 
names of the adjacent places were fuitable : it was 
feated in the pariih of Dolor-, was bounded by the 
glens of care^ and wafhed by the birns of forrozv. 
This cafiile, with the whole territory belonging to 
the family of Argyle^ underwent all the calamities 
of civil war in 1645 •, for its rival, the Marquis of 
Montrofe-, carried fire and fword through the whole 
eflate. The caftle v/as ruined ; and its magnificent 
reliques exift, as a monument of the horror of the 
times. No wonder then that the Marquis expe* 
rienced fo woeful and ignominious a fate, v/hen he 
fell into the power of fo exafperated a chieftain. 

Returned to my inn along the foot of the Ochil 
hills, whofe fides v/ere covered with a fine verdure, 
and fed great numbers of cattle and fheep. The 
country below full of oats, and in a very improving 
(late : the houfes of the common people decent, but 
moftly covered with fods •, fome were covered both 
with ftraw and fod. The inhabitants extremely 

F 3 civil. 


yo A T O U R 

civil, and never failed offering brandy, or whey, 
when I flopt to make enquiries at any of their 

In the afternoon crofTcd a branch of the fimie 
hills, which yielded plenty of oats •, defcended into 
Btraith-earn. Straith-eam^ a beautifuU vale, about thirty miles in 
length, full of rich meadows and corn fields, divided 
by the river Earn^ which ferpentines finely through 
the middle, falling into the T>>-, of which there is 
a fight at the eaft end of the vale. It is prettily 
diverfified with groves of trees and gentlemen's 
houfes ; among which, towards the weft end, is 
Cajlle Vru/umond, the forfeited feat of the Earl of 

Cofile Duplin * -, the refidence of the Earl of 
Kinnoul, feated on the north fide of the vale, on 
the edge of a fiecp glen. Only a fingle tower re- 
mains of the old caftle, the reft being modernized. 
The front commands a pleafing view of the vale ; 
behind are plantations, extending feveral miles in 
length ; all flourifli greatly, except thofe of afli. I 
remarked in the woods, fome very large chefnuts, 
horfe-chelhuts, fpruce and filver firs, cedar and 
arbor viice. Broad-leaved laburnum thrives in this 
country greatly, grows to a great fize, and the 
wood is ufed in fineerlng. ** 
fiuit. Fruits fucceed here very indifi^crently -, even non- 

pareils require a wall to ripen: grapes, figs, and late 

• Nenr this place was the battle of Duplin, M3 2, between 
the Englijh, under the command oi Bnliol, and x\ie Scots. The 
laft were defeated, and fuch a number of the name of liny 
flain, that the family would have been extinft, had not feve- 
ral of tlieir wives been left at home pregnant. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 71 

peaches, will not ripen: the winters begin early and 
end late, and are attended with very high winds. I 
was informed that labor is dear here, notwithftand- Labor, 
ing it is only eight-pence a day j t-hecommon people 
not being yet got into a method of working, fo do 
very little for their wages. Notv^ithftandiiig this, 
improvements arecarried on in thefe parts with great 
fpirit, both in planting and in agriculture. Lord 
Ki nnou / phnted lad year not fewer than eighty thou- 
fand trees, befides Scolcb firs -, fo provides future 
forefts for the benefit of his fuccelTors, and the em- 
bellifhment of his country. In refped: to agricul- 
ture, there are difficulties to ftruggle with, for the 
country is without either cpal or lime ftone ; fo that 
the lime is brought from the eftate of the Earl of 
Elgin, near Dumferline, who, I was told, drew a 
confiderable revenue from the kilns. 

In Caftle Duplin are fome very good pidures ; a 
J'emarkable one of Luther, Bucer, and Catherine 
the nun, in the charafters of muficians, by Georgi- 
ani di Cajlel franco. 

A fine head of a fecular prieft, by Titian. St. 
Nicholas blefling three children. Two of cattle, 
by Rofa di Tivoli. A head of Spencer. Rtibens* 
head, by himfelf. A fine head of Butler, by Sir 
Peter Lely. Of the old Countefs of Defmond, by 
Rembrandt. Mrs. Tofts, in the charadler of St. 
Catherine, by Sir Godfrey Knelkr. Sir George Haye, 
of Maginnis, in armour, 1640-, done at Rome by L. 
Ferdinand. Haye, Earl of Carlijle, in Charles the 
Firft's time, young and veryhandfome, by Cornelius 
Janfen. The fecond Earl of Kinnoul, by Vandyk. 

F 4 Chancellor 

Hill of Men- 

A T O U R I 

Chancellor Hayc, by Mytens. A good portriit of 
Lord Trcafurer Oxford, by Rickardfcn. And a 
beautiful! miniature of Sir John Earnly, 
July 27.' Afcended the hill of Moncrief-y the profpeft from 

thence is the glory of Scotland, and well merits the 
eulogia given it for the variety and richnefs of its 
views. On the fouth and well appear Slraithern, 
embelliflied with the feats of Lord Kinnoul, Lord 
Rollo-, and of feveral other gentlemen* the Carfe^ or 
rich plain of Cowrie, Stormont hills, and the hill of 
Kinnoul, whofe vaft cliff is remarkable for its beau- 
tiful! pebbles. The meanders of the Em, which 
winds more than any river I at this time had feen, 
are moft enlivening additions to the fcene. The 
lall turn it takes forms a fine peninfula prettily 
planted, and juft beyond it joins the ^ay, whofe 
^eftuary lies full in view, the fea clofing the profpedt 
on this fide. 

To the north lies the town of Perth, with a view 
of part of its magnificent bridge •, which, with the 
fine woods called Perth Parks, the vaft plain of 
Strailh-Tay, the winding of that noble river, its 
iflands, and the grand boundary, formed by the 
diftant highlands, finilh this matchlcfs fcene. The 
inhabitants of Perth are far from being blind to the 
beauties of their river ; for with fingular plcafure 
they relate the tradition of the Roman army, when 
it came in fight of the Tay *, burfling into the ex- 
clamation of, Ecce Tiherims 

On approaching the town are fome pretty walks 
handfomely planted, and at a fmall diftance, the 

* Tau5, Tacit i 'vit.Agr. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 73 

remains of fome works of Cromwell, called Oliver's 

Perth is large, and in general well-built •, two Pbrth, 
of the ftrects are remarkably fine ; in fome of the 
lefTer are yet a few wooden houfes in the old ftyle ; 
but as they decay, the magiftrates prohibit the re- 
building them in the old way. There is but one 
parifli, which has two churches, bcfides meetings! 
for feparatifts, who are very numerous. One 
church, which belonged to a monaftery, is very 
antient : not a veflige of the lafl is now to be feeti ; 
for thedifciples of that rough apoftle Knox made a 
general dcfolation of every edifice that had given 
flielter to the worfhippers of the church of Rome :• 
it being one of his maxims, to pull down the neftsj 
and the rooks would fly away. 

The fiourilhing ftate of Pert b is owing to two 
accidents : the firft, that of numbers oi CromweWs 
wounded officers and foldiers chufing to refide here, 
after he left the kingdom, who introduced a fpirit 
of induftry among the people : the other caufe was 
the long continuance of the Earl of Af^r's army 
here in 1 7 1 5, which occafioned vail fums of money 
being fpent in the place : but this town, as well as 
all Scotland., dates its profperity from the yean 745, 
the government of this part oi Great Britain having 
never been fettled till a little after that time. The 
rebellion was a diforder violent in its operation, but 
falutary in its effefts. 

The trade of Perth is confiderable : it exports Trad«, 
annually one hundred and fifty thoufand pounds 
v/orth of linnen, ten thoufand of wheat and barley, 


74 A T U R 

and about the fame in cured raln:ion. ThatfiHi is 
taken there in vaft abundance; three thouTand have 
been caught in one morning, weighing, one with 
another, fjxteen pounds •, the whole capture, forty- 
eight thoufand pounds. The filhery begins at St. 
Andrew^ Day, and ends Augujt 26th, old ftylc. 
The rents of the nflieries amount to three thoufand 
pounds 'per annum. 

• I was informed that fmelts come up this river in 
May and Jun^, 
pearl. There has been in thefe parts a very great fifhery 

of pearl, got out of the frefli- water mufcles. From 
the year 1761 to 1764, 1 0,000 1. worth were fcnt 
to London^ and fold frora los. to il. 16 s. per 
ounce. I was told that a pearl has been taken 
there that weighed 33 grains; but this fifliery is 
at prefent exhaufted, from the avarice of the under- 
takers : it once extended as far as Lough-Tay. 

Gozvrie Floufe is fliewn to all ftrangers; formerly 
the property and refidencc of the Earl of Gowrie-, 
whofe tragical end and myfterious confpiracy (\i 
confpiracy there was) are (till frcfli in the minds of 
the people of Perth. At prefent the houfe is oc- 
G^xtir.-> con- cupied by fome companies .of artillery. I was 
piiacy. fiiewn the ftaircafe where the unhappy nobleman 

was killed, the window the frighted monarch James 
roared out of, and that he efcapcd through, when 
he was favcd from the fury of the populace, by 
Baily Rcy^ a friend oi Cowrie's^ who was extremely 
beloved in the town. 

From the little traditions preferved in the palace, 
it fcems as \i Cowrie had not the left intent of mur- 



thcring the King : on the day his Majefty cirne to 
Perth, the Earl was engaged to a wedding-dinner 
with the Dean of Guild : when the account of the 
King's defign reached him he changed color, on 
being taken fo unprovided ; but the Dean forced 
him to accept the nuptial feaft, which was lent over 
to the Earl's houfe. 

When the King fled he pafTed by the feat of Sir 
William Moncrief, nczx Em bridge, who happening 
to "be walking out at that time, heard from the 
mouth of his terrified Majefly the whole relation ; 
but the Knight found it lb marvellous and fo dif- 
jointed, as plainly to tell the King, that if it was a 
iruejlory, it was a veryjlrange one. 

Gowrie was a mod accompliflied gentleman: af- 
ter he had finilhed his ftudies he held the Profeflbr 
of Philofophy's chair for two years, in one of the 
Italian univerfities. 

Crofs the Tay on a temporary bridge ; the ftone 
bridge, which is to confifl of nine arches, beino- at 
this time unfinifhed j the largeft arch is feventy-fix 
feet wide ; when complete it promifes to be a moll 
magnificent ftruflure. The river here is very vio- 
lent, and admits of fcarce any navigation above ; 
but {hips of eighty or ninety tuns come as far as 
the town. 

Scone lies about a mile and half higher up, on the Scom, 
eaft bank of the river. There was once here an 
abby of great antiquity *, which was burnt by the 
reforming zealots of Dundee. The prefent palace 

* Founded hy Alexander I. 1 114, for canons regular of St. 


*1 >0 

^6 A T O U R 

was begun by Earl Cowrie •, but, on his death, 
being granted by James VI. to his favorite, Sir 
David Murray, of Gofpatrie, was completed by 
him i who, in gratitude to the king, has, in feveral 
parts of the houfe, put up the royal arms. The 
houfe is built round two courts ; the dining-room is 
large and handfome, has an antient but magnificent 
chimney-piece, the king's arms, with this motto. 

Nobis hac invi£!a miferunt centum fex Proavi. 
Beneath are the Murray arms. In the drawing- 
room is fome good old tapellry, with an excellent 
figure of Mercury, In a fmall bed-chamber is a 
medly fcripture piece in needle-work, with a border 
of animals, pretty well done ; the work of Maty 
iS/«^^r/, during her confinement in Locb-leven czWXe. : 
but the houfe in general is in a manner unfurnifhed. 

The gallery is about a hundred and fifty-five feet 
long; the top arched, divided into compartments, 
filled with paintings, in water colors, of different 
forts of huntings; and that Nimrod, James VI. and 
his train, appear in every piece. 

Till the dcftruflion of the abby, the kings of 
Scotland were crowned here, fitting in the famous 
wooden chair, which Edward I. tranfportcd to 
JVeJiminJler-Abhyy much to the mortification of the 
Scots, who efteemed it as their palladium. Charles 
II. before the battle of IVorceJier, was crowned in 
the prefent chapel. The old Pretender refided at 
Sco?n for a confiderable time in 17 15, and his foa 
made it a vifit in 1745. 

Re- palled the Tay at Bii'im's Boat ; vifited the 



Held of Loncart)\ celebrated for the great viflory * l^^^^rtj, 
obtained by the Scots over the Danes, by means of 
the gallant peafant Hay and his two fons, who, with 
noother weapons than the yokes which they fnatched 
from their oxen then at plough, firft put a flop to 
the flight of their countrymen, and afterwards led 
them on to conqueft. The noble family of Hay 
are defcended from this ruftic hero, and in memory 
of the aftion, bear for their arms the inftrument 
of their victory, with the allufive motto of Subjugo, 
There are on the fpot feveral tumuli, in which are 
frequently found bones depofited in loofe ftones, 
difpofed in form of a coffin. Not remote is a fpot 
which fupplied me with far more agreeable ideas j a 
traft of ground, which in 1732 was a meer bog, 
but now converted into good mieadows, and about 
fifty acres covered with linnen ; feveral other parts 
with buildings, and all the apparatus of the linnen 
manufacture, extremelv curious and worth feeinof, 
carried on by the induftrious family of the Sandi- 
tnans, who annually make four hundred thoufand 
yards of linnen. 

The country is good, full of barley, oats, and 
flax in abundance i but afcer a few miles travcllincr 
is fucceeded by a black heath : ride through a beau- 
tiful plantation of pines, and after defcending an 
eafy flope the plain beneath fuddenly contrafts it- 
felf into a narrow glen : the profpedt before me 
ftrongly marked the entrance into the Highlands^ 
the hills that bounded it on each fide being lofty 
and rude. On the left was Birna-m Wood, which Biman 

* Jn the time of Kennttli, who began his reign In 976. Wood, 


yt -t:i^^ . A TOUR 

feems never to have recovered the march its an*] 
Vunfmam, ceftors made- to Bunfmane : 1 was fliewn at a great^ 
diftance a high ridge of hills, where Ibmc remains 
of that famous fortreis {Macbeth^ caftle) are faid| 
yet to cxifl. 

The pafs into the Highlands is awefully magnifi-'' 
cent ; high, craggy, and often naked mountains 
prefenr thcmfelvcs to view, approach very near 
rach other, and in many parts are fringed with 
v/ood, overhanging and darkening the Tay, that 
rolls with great rapidity beneath. After fome ad- 
vance in this hollov/, a moft beautiful knowl, co- 
vered v/ith pines, appears full in view ; and foon 
DunkeU. after, the town of Diinkeld, feated under and en- 
vironed by crags, partly naked, partly wooded, 
with fummits of a vaft height. Lay at hver, a 
good inn, on the weft fide of the river. 
July 28. Crofted it in a boat, attended by a tame fwan, 
which was perpetually folliciting our favors by put- 
ting its neck over the fides of the ferry-boat. Land 
in the Duke of Jthol's gardens, which are extremely 
pleafing, waflied by the river, and commanding 
from different parts of the walks the moft beautiful 
and pifturefque views of wild and gloomy nature 
that can be conceived. Trees of all kinds grow 
here extremely well i and even fo fouthern a (hrub 
as Portugal laurel flourilhes greatly. In the gardens 
are the ruins of the cathedral, once a magnificent 
aedifice, as appears by the beautiful "round pillars 
ftill ftanding; but the choir is preferved, and at 
prefent ufed as a church. In the burial-place of 
the family is a large monument of the Marquis o{ 

fd A T O U R 

furnifhcd •, but the owners civil, fcnfible, and of 
che quickeft apprehenfions. 

The ftrait now widens into a vale plentiful in 
oats, barley and flax, and well peopled : on the 
right is the junftion of the I'ay and the Tumcl : 
the channels of thefe rivers are wide, full of 
gravel, the mark of their devaftation during floods. 
Due north is the road to Blair and Fcrt Jugufius, 
through the noted pafs of Kiliicrajtkie ; turn to the 
left J ride oppofite to Cajlle Menzies : reach Tay- 
mouth, the feat of the Earl of Breadalbane. 
JuLY29,&c. 'Taymouth * lies in a vale fcarce a mile broad, 
Tajmouth^ Very fertile, bounded on each fide by high moun- 
tains finely planted. Thofe on the fouth are co- 
vered with trees, or with corn fields, far up their 
fides. The hills on the north are planted with 
pines and other trees, and vaftly fticp, and have a 
very alpine look -, but particularly refemble the 
great flope oppofite tiie grande Chartreufe in Dau- 
phi7ii. His Lordlhip's policy -j- furrounds the 
houfe, which ftands in the park, and is one of the 
few in which fallow deer are feen. 

The ground is in remarkable fine order, owing 
to his Lordlliip's affiduity in clearing it from ftones, 
with which it was once covered. A Blajler was in 
conftant employ to blall the great ftones with gun- 
powder ; for, by reafon of their fize, there was no 
other method of removing them, 
walkfi. "Yhc Bet'ceaH walk is very magnificent, compofed 

* Its name, ia old maps, h Balloch ; i. c. the mouth of the 

f This word here fignifies improvementJ, or demefne : 
when ufed by a merchant, or tradefman, fignifies their ware- 
hom'cs, ftjop:;, and the like, 


I N S C O T L A N D. Bi 

of great trees, forming a fine gothic arch -, and pro- 
bably that fpecies of architecture owed its origin to 
fuch vaulted fhades. The walk on the bank of the 
Tay is fifty feet wide, and two and twenty hundred 
yards long ; but is to be continued as far as the 
junction of the 'Tay and the IJon^ which is about 
as far more. The firft runs on the fides of the 
walk with great rapidity, is clear, but not color* 
lefs, for its peliucidnefs is like that of brown 
cryftal; as is the cafe with moft of the rivers of 
Scotland^ which receive their tinge from the bogs. 
The Tay has here a wooden bridge two hundred 
feet long, leading to a white feat on the fide of the 
oppofite hill, commanding a fine view up and dov/n 
Straith Tay. The rich meadows beneath, the wind- 
ing of the river, the beginning of Lough-Tay, the 
difcharge of the river out of it, the neat village and 
church 01 Kenmor, form a moll: pleafmg and mag- 
nificent profpedft. 

The view from the temple of Fenus is that of the Lough-Taj. 
lake, with a nearer fight of the church and village, 
and the difcharge of the river. The lake is about 
a mile broad, and about fifteen long, bounded on 
each fide by lofty mountains ; makes three great 
bends, which adds to its beauty. Thole on the fouth 
are well planted, and finely cultivated high up ; 
interfperfed with the habitations of the Highlanders^ 
not fingly, but in fmall groupes, as if they loved 
fociety or clanihip : they are very Imall, mean, and 
without windows or chimnics, and are the difgracc 
of North Britahu as its lakes and rivers are its' 
glory. Lough-Tay is, in many places, a hundred 

G fathoms 

ti A T O U R 

fathoms deep, and within as many yards of the 
(hore, fifty-four. 

Till the prefent year, this lake was fuppofed to 
be as incapable of freezing as Lough- Nefs, Lough- 
Earn, and Lough-Each ; tho' Lough- Ray nac^ and 
even Lough-Fine, an arm of the fca, often does. 
But in March 1771, fo rigorous and uncommon 
was the cold, that about the 20th of that month 
this vaft body of water was frozen over, in one 
part, from fide to fide, in the fpace of a fingle 
night ; and fo ftrong was the ice, as greatly to 
damage a boat which was caught in it. 

Lough-Tay abounds with Pike, Perch, Eels, Sal- 
mon and Trout -, of the lafl:, fome have been taken 
that weighed above thirty pounds. Of thefe fpe- 
cics, the Highlanders abhor Eels, and alio Lam- 
pries, fancying, from the form, that they are too 
nearly related to Serpents *. 

The north fide is lefs wooded, but more culti- 
vated. The vail hill of Laursy with beds of fnow 
on it, through great part of the year, rifes above 
the reft, and the flill loftier mountain of Benmor 
clofes the view far beyond the end of the lake. 
All this country abounds with game, fuch as Grous, 
Ptarmigans -f-, Stags, and a peculiar fpecies of 
White Hare. Hare, which is found only on the fummits of the 
higheft hills, and never mixes with the common 
kind, which is frequent enough in the vales J. 

• I was informed, that at the head of the lake are the re- 
mains of an old caftlc, called Finlarif^, belonging to Lord 
Breadalhane, and of a park finely wooded with old oaks, 
chefnuts, and other timber. 

f Br. 7ct^. illujir. 21. tab. xiii, 

\ The fame, />. 4c. tab. xlvii. 
2 This 

I N S C O T L A N D. %^ 

This fpecies is grey in fummer, white in winter ; is 
fmaller than the brown Hare, and more delicate 

The Ptarmigans inhabit the very fummits of the Ptamigans, 
higheft mountains, amidfl the rocks, perching 
among the grey ftones, and during fummer are 
fcarce to be diftinguilhed from them, by reafon of 
their color. They feldom take long flights, but 
fly about like pigeons ; are filly birds, and fo tame 
as to fufFer a Hone to be flung at them without 
rifing. It is not necefl!ary to have a dog to find 
them. They tafte fo like a Grous, as to be fcarce 
diftinguilhable. During winter, their plumage, ex- 
cept a few feathers in the tail, are of a pure white, 
the color of the fnow, in which they bury them- 
felves in heaps, as a protedion from the rigorous 
^ Royfton Crows, called here Hooded Crows, and Birds* 
in the Erfe^ Feanagh, are very common, and refide 
here the whole year. They breed in the hills, in 
all forts of trees j lay fix eggs ; have a fhriller note 
than the common fort j are much m.ore mifchievous; 
pick out the eyes of lambs, and even of horfes, 
when engaged in bogs ; but, for want of other 
food, will eat cranberries, and other mountain 

Ring Ouzels breed among the hills, and in au- 
tumn defcend in flocks to feed on the berries of the 
wicken trees. 

Sea Eagles breed in ruined towers, but quit the 
country in winter j the black Eagles continue there 
the whole year. 

G 2 U 

84 A T O U R 

It is very difiiculc to leave the environs of this 
delightful place : before I go within doors, I 
niuft recall to mind the fine winding walks on the 
fouth fide of the hills, the great beech fixteen feet 
in girth, the pidiirefque birch with its long ftreani- 
ing branches, the hermitage, the great cataradls 
adjacent, and the darkfome chafm beneath. I 
muft enjoy over again the view of the fine reach of 
the T>v, and its union with the broad water of the 
Lion: 1 muft ftep down to view the druidical circles 
of ftunes, cjUed in the Erfe, 'Tibherd; and hilly, I 
Tly hidge. muft vifit '^'cy- bridge^ and, as far as my pen can 
contribute, extend the fame of our military coun- 
trymen, who, among other works worthy of the 
Romans^ founded this bridge, and left its hiftory 
infcribed in thefe terms : 


viam hanc miljtarem 

Ultra Romanos terininos 

M. Pafilium. ccL hac iliac 

extenfam -, 

Tefquis ct paludibus infultantem 

per Montes rupefque patefadam 

et indignanri Tavo 

ut cernis inicratam. 

Opus hoc arduLuii fua folertii, 

Et decennali militum opera, 

A. Mr. X"* 1733. Pofuit G. Wade 

Copiarum in Scotia Prxfot^us. 

Euce quantum valeant 

Regis Georgii II. Aufpicia. 




^aymoitth is a large houfe, a caftle modernized. 
The moll remarkable part of its furniture is the 
works of the famous Jamefon *, the Scotch Vandyh^ Jamefcn. 
an eleve of this family. That fingular performance 
of his, the genealogical pidure, is in good pre- 
fervation. Sir Dunfau Campbell, Laird of Lochlou^ 
is placed recumbent at the foot of a trtc, wirh a 
branch ; on the right is a fmgle head of his eldefl: 
fon, the chief of the Argyk family j but on the 
various ramifications, are the names of his defcen- 
dents, and along the body of the tree are nine 
fmall heads, in oval frames, with the names on the 
margins, all done with great neatnefs : the fecnnd 
fon was fit ft of the houfe of Breadalbane, vv'^ich 
branched from the other about four hundred years 
ago. In a corner is infcribed, The Geneologie of the 
houfe of Glenorquhie ^hairof is defcendit fundris 
nohil i3 worthie houfes. ]zme(on fa ciebat. 1635. 
Its fize is eight feet by five. In the fame room are 
about twenty heads of perfons of the family ; among 
others, that of a lady, fo very ugly, that a wag, on 
feeing it, with lifted hands pronounced, that fhe 
v/zs fearfully and 'U}onde}fully made. There are in 
the fame houfe feveral heads by Jamrfon ; but many 
of them unfortunately fpoiled in the mending. 

In the library is a fmail book, called, from the 
binding, the black bock, with fome beautiful draw- 
ings in it, on vellum, oi iht Breadalbane family, in 

* Sen of an architeft at Aberdeen ; ftudied under RuheiHy 
at Ant'iverp. Charles I. fat to him, and prefented him with a 
diamond ring. He always drew himfelf with his h;;t on. 
His prices were 20I. Scots, or il. 13s. 4d. Englijh, per head ; 
was born in 1586 ; died at Edinburgh, 1644. Por a further 
account, confult Mr. Wulpole^% Anecdotes of Painting. 

G 3 water- 

tS A T O U R 

water-colors. In the firft page is old Sir Duncan^ 
between two other figures •, then follow Teveral 
chiefs of the family, among whom is Sir Coli», 
Knight of Rhodes, who died 1480, aged 80. At 
the end is a manufcript hiftory of the family, end- 
ing, I think, in 1633. 
JuLV 50, Went to divine fervice at Kinmore * church, 
which, with the viljage, was re-built, in the neateft 
manner, by the prefent Lord Breadalbane : they 
fland beautifully on a fmall headland, projefling 
into the lake. His Lordfhip permits the inhabi- 
tants to live rent-free, on condition they exercifc 
fome trade, and keep their houfes clean : fo that, 
by thef^ terms, he not only faves the expence of 
fending^ on every trifling occafion, to Perth or 
Crief, but has got fome as good workmen, in com- 
mon trades, as any in his Majefty's dominions. 

The church is a remarkably neat plain building, 

with a very handfome tower fteeple : the congre- 

N gation wa^ numerous, decent, attentive, flill ; 

well and neatly clad, and not a ragged or flovenly 

perfon among them. There were two fervices, 

one in EfJgUfi-, the other in Erfe. After the firft, 

numbers of people, of both fcxes, went out of 

church, and feating themfclves in the church-yard, 

made, in their motly habits, a gay and piflurefque 

Highlandcon. appearance. The devotion of the common people 

grc^ation. q^- ^cctlandy on the ufual days of worfhip, is fis 

much to be admired, as their condud at the fa- 

cralicnt in certain places is to be cenfured. It 

• Or the Great Head. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 87 

is celebrated but once In a year * 5 when there are 
fometimt-s three thoufand communicants, and 
as many idle fpeflators. Of the firib, as many as 
poflible crowd each fide of a long table, and the 
elements are rudely ihoven from one to another ; 
and in fome places, before the day is at an end, 
fighting and other indecencies enfue. It is often 
made a feafon for debauchery j fo, to this day. 
Jack cannot be perfuaded to eat his meat like a 
chriftian -f . 

Every Sunday a colle<5lion is made for the fick or 
necelTitous j for poor's rates are unknown in every 
country parifh in Scotlafid. Notwithftanding the 
common people are but juft rouzed from their na- 
tive indolence, very few beggars are feen in North 
Britain : either they are full mafters of the leflbn 
of being content with a very little •, or, what is more 
probable, they are poflefTcd of a fpirit that will 
ftruggle hard with neceflity before it will bend to 
the afking of alms. 

Vifited a pretty little ifland in Loch-^ay tufted 
with trees, and not far from the fhore : on it are the 
ruins of a priory dependent on that at Scone \ found- 
ed in 1 122, by Alexander the Firft, in which were 
depofited the remains of his Queen Syhilla-, natural 
daughter to Henry I. it was founded by Alexander 
in order for the prayers of the Monks for the re- 
pofe of his foul, and that of his royal confort J. 

• Formerly the facrament was adminiflered but once in 
two years. 

+ Tale of a Tub. 

X As appears from a grant made by that Monarch of the 
ifle in Loch-Tay, Ut Ecclejta Dei ibi pro me et [ro /fnima 
^YBILL^ Regin^ ibi defunct a fabricetur^ &C. 

G 4 ' To 

^S A T O U R 

To this ifland the Campbells retreated, during the 
fucceiffs of the Marquifs of Montrofe^ where they 
defended themftlves againft that hero, which was 
'one caule oi his violent refentment againft the 
vi-hoie name. 

July 3J. Roue to Glen-lion ; went by the fide of the river* 
that ^ivcs name to it. It has now loft its antient 
title of DuiCy or Blacky given it on account of a 
great battle between the Mackays and the Mac- 
grcgGYs \ atter which, the conquerors are faid to 
have ftaincd the water with red, by wafliing in it 
their bloody fwords and fpears. On the right is a 
rocky hill, called Shi-hallen, or the Paps. Enter 
Ckn-lion through a ftrnit pafs : the vale is narrow, 
but fertile ; the banks of the river fteep, rocky, and 
wooded ; through which appear the rapid water of 
the JJon. On the north is a round fortrefs, on the 
top of the hill ; to which, in eld times, the natives 
retreated, on any invafion. A little farther, on a 
plain, is a fmall Roman campf, called by the High- 
landers Fortingal^ or the Fort of the Strangers : 
themfelves they ftyle Na-fian, or defcendents of 
FingaL In Fortingal church are tlie remains of a 

Great yew. prodigious yew-tree, whofe ruins meafyred fifty-fix 
feet and a half in circumference. 

Saw at the houfe of Col. Camphell of Glen-lion, 
a curious walking-ftaff, belonging to one of his 
anceftois : it was iron cafed in leather, five feet 

• Tills river freezes ; but the Tay, which receives it, 
never does. 

t It poflibly might have been made during the expedition 
of Scverus, who peneirattd to the extremity of this ifland : 
it was the moil northern work of the Rcmnns I had any intel- 
ii^tncc of. 

Ions; 5 

I N S C O T L A N D. ^Si 

long ; at the top a neat pair of extended wings, 
like a caduceus-, but, on being fhook, a poniard, 
two feet nine inches long, darted out. 

He alfo favored me with the fight of a very 
antient brotche, which the Highlanders ufe, like 
x\\Q fibula of the Remans-, to faften their vefl : it is 
madeof filver, is round, v^ith a bar crofs the mid- 
dle, from whence are two tongues to faften the 
folds of the garments : one fide is ftudded with 
pearl, or coarfe gems, in a very rude manner; on 
the other, the names of the three kings of Cologne^ 
Caspar, Melchior, Baltazar •, with the word 
conftmfnatim. It was probably a confecrated 
brotche, and worn not only for ufe, but as an 

Return fouth, and come at once in fight of 
Loch-Tay. The day being very fine and calm, 
the whole fcenev/as moft beautifully repeated in the 
water. I muft not omit that on the north fide of - 
this lake is a moft excellent road, which runs the 
whole length of it, leading to I'eindrum and Inve- 
raray, in Argyleflnre, and is the route which tra- 
vellers muft take, who make what I call the pel:: 
tour * of Scotland. This whole road was made at the 
fole expence of the prefent Lord Breadalbam; who, 
to facilitate the travelling, alfo ereded thirty-two 
ftone-bridges over the torrents that rulh from the 

* Which comprehends the route I have defcribed ; adding 
to it, from Ta^mouth, along the road, on the fide of the lake, 
to Killin, I 6 miles; from thence to Teindrum, 20 j Gienorchie, 
12 ; Innjeraray, 16 ; Luis, on the banks of Loch-lomond, 30; 
Dunharton, 1 2 ; Gla/goiv, 1 5 ; Sterling, 3 1 ; Edlnkurgh, by 
Hopetoun-Hoafe, 35; a traft unparalleled, for the variety, 
and frequency of fine and magnificent fcenery. 


A T O U R 

mountains into the lake. They will find the whole 
Roads, country excell in roads, partly military, partly done 
by ftatute labor, and much by the munificence of 
the great men. 

I was informed, that Lord Breadalbane^^ eftate 
was fo extenfive that he could ride a hundred miles 
an end on it, even as far as the Well Sea, where he 
has alfo fome iflands. Thefe great properties are 
divided into diftri6ls, C2\\td Officiaries : a ground 
officer preiides over each, and has three, four, or 
five hundred men under his care : he fuperintends 
the duties due from each to their Lord, fuch as 
fetching peat, bringing coal from Perlh, &c. which 
they do, at their own expence, on horfes backs, 
travelling in firings, the tail of one horfe being 
fafiened by a cord, which reaches to the head of 
the next : the horfes are little, and generally white 
or grey ; and as the farms are very fmall, it is com- 
mon for four people to keep a plough between 
them, each furnifhing a horfe, and this is called a 
horfc gang. 

The north fide of Loch-Tny is very populous; 
for in fixteen fquare miles are feyenteen- hundred 
and eighty-fix fouls: on the other fide, about twelve 
hundred. The country, within thefe thirty years, 
is grown very induftrious, and manufactures a great 
deal of thread. They fpin with rocks *, which 
they do while they attend their cattle on the hills ; 
and, at the three or four fairs in the year, held at 
^aymciith^ about fixteen hundred pounds worth of 
yarn is fold out of Breadalbane only. 

• Their Lord gives among them annually a great noniber 
of fpinning- wheels. 




Much of this may be owing to the good fertCc 
and humanity of the chieftain ; but much again is 
owing to the abolition of the feudal tenures, or 
vaiTalage ; for before that was effircled (which was 
done by the influence of a Chancellor *, whofe 
memory Scotland gratefully adores for that fervice) 
the Strong opprefTed the Weak, the Rich the Poor. 
Courts indeed were held, and juries called ; but 
juries of vafTals, too dependent and too timid to 
be relied on for the execution of true jullice. 

Leave Taymouth-^ ford the Lien, and ride above Aug. i, 
it thro' fome woods : on the left burfts out a fine 
cafcade, in a deep hollow, covered with trees : at 
a fmall diftance to the weft is Cajile-Gartby a fmaii 
caftle feated like caftle Campbell^ between two deep 
glens : keep afcending a fteep hill, but the corn 
country continues for a while : the fcene then 
changes for a wild, black, and mountainous heath : 
defcend into Rayndcb, a meadowy plain, tolerably Rayiach^ 
fertile : the lake of the fame name extends from 
Eaft to Wefti is about eleven miles long, and one 
broad: the Northern banks appeared very barren; 
part of the Southern finely covered with a foreft of 
pine and birch, the firft natural woods I had leen of Pine Forcit. 
pines : rode a good way into it, but obferved no 
trees of any fize, except a birch fixteen feet in cir- 
cumference : the ground beneath the trees is co- 
vered with heath, biiberies, and dwarf arbutus, 
•whofe glofiy leaves make a pretty appearance : this 
place gives fhelter to black game, and is at prefent 

* Earl of HardTvick, who may br truly faid to have given 
to the North Britons their great charier of liberty. 


92 A TOUR 

tlie farthefl Southern rclort of roes, for very f^w 
ever ftraggle lower down : near thefe woods is a faw- 
mill, which brings in about i Sol. per amj. the deal, 
which is the red fort, is fold in plank to difTerent 
parts of the country, carried on horfes backs, for 
the trees are now grown fo Icarce as not to admit of 
exportation *. 

The lake affords no other fidi than trouts, and 
bull trouts ; the laft, as I was informed, are fome- 
times taken of the length of four feet and a half: 
many water fowl breed in the birns or little dreams 
that trickle into the lake •, among others different 
fort of grebes, and divers : I was told of one which 
the inhabitants call T'uruvacbal, that makes a great 
noife before ftorms, and by their defcription feems 
to be the Finder of Gcfnsr. 
The Poet This country was once the property o^ Robert [on ^ 
Strusn. q£ siyif^^^ y/YiQ J5ad been in the rebellion of 17 15 ; 
had his eftate relfored, but in 1745 rebelling a fe- 
cond time, the country was burnt, and the eflate 
annexed to the crown : he returned a few years af- 
ter, and died as he lived, a moft abandoned fot ; 
notwithflanding which he had a genius for poetry, 
and left behind him a volume of elegies, and 
other pieces, in fome of^which he elegantly laments 
the ravages of war among his vafials, and the lofs 
of his favorite fcenes, and in particular his foun- 
tain Argentine. 

The country is perfetStly highland; and in fpitc of 
the intercourfe this and the neighboring parts hav^ 
of late years had with the rcil of the world, it Hill 
• Some Pot-A(h is alio made of the Birch Wood. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 93 

retains fome of its antient cuftoms and fiiperfl:!- SupcrlliuoBS. 
tions ; they decline dail)', but lead their memory 
flioiild be loil, I fliall mention feveral that are (till 
praftifed, or but very lately difufed in the trad I 
had pafled over. Such a record will have this 
advantage when the follies are quite extinft, in 
teaching the unfhackled and enlightened mind the 
difference between the pure ceremonies of religion, 
and the wild and anile flights of fuperflition. 

The belief in fpeftres Hill exills ; of which I Spe£lrcs, 
had a remarkable proof while I was in the county 
of Breadalbane : a poor yifionary, who had been 
working in his cabbage-garden, imagined that he t 
was railed fuddenly-into the air, and conveyed over 
a wall into an adjacent corn-field * ; that he found 
himfelf furrounded by a crowd of men and women, 
many of whom he knew to have been dead fome 
years, and who appeared to him fkimmlng over the 
tops of the unbended corn, and mingling together 
like bees going to hive : that they fpoke an unknown 
language and vv'ith r. hollow found : that they very 
roughly puflied him to and fro ; but on his utter- 
ing the name of God, all vanifhed but a female 
fprite, who feizing him by the fhoulder, obliged 
himtopromifean affignation,atthat very hour, than 
day fevenight: that he then found that his hair was 
all tied in double knots, and that he had almoft loft 
the ufe of his fpeech : that he kept his word with 

• Thefe tales of fpe(flral tranfportation are far from being 
new ; Mr. Aubrey in his mifcellanies, p. 13. gives two ridi- 
culous relations of almoft fimiiar fafts, one in Dciionjhire, the 
Other in the fhire of Mnrrnv, 

4 t^e 

94 A T O U R 

the fpetflrc, whom he foon faw come floating thro' 
the air towards him : that he fpoke to her, but fiie 
told him at that time fhe was in too much haftc 
to attend to him, but bid him go away, and no 
harm fliould befall him i and fo the affair refted 
when I left the country. But it is incredible the 
m'lkh'ief thck^'Egri Somnir. did in the neighborhood: 
the friends and relation of the deceafed, whom the 
eld Dreamer had named, were in the utmoft anxiety 
at finding them in fuch bad company in the other 
world : the almoll extind belief of the old idle 
tales began again to gain ground, and the good 
minifter will have many a weary difcourfe and ex- 
liortation before he can eradicate the abfurd ideas 
this idle ilory has revived. 

In this part of the country the notion of witch- 
craft is quite loft : it was obfervcd to ceafe almoft 
immediately on the repeal of the witch adt * ; a 
proof what a dangerous inftrument it was in the 
hands of the vindidive, or of the credulous. 

Unluckyday. Among the fuperftitious cuftoms thefe are the 
moll fingular. A Highlander never begins any 
thing of confequence on the day of the week on 
which the 3d of Mtiy falls, which he ftylcs Lagb 
Sheachanna Jia hUanagh, or the dilmal day. 

Bel-teln. On the I ft of May, the herdfmen of every vil- 

lage hold their Bel-tein t, a rural facrifice : they cut 
a fquarc trench on the ground, leaving the turf in 
the middle -, on that they make a fire of wood, on 

• which was not till the year 1736. 

f My account of this, and every other ceremony mentioned 
in this Journal, was communicated to me by gentlemen refx- 
deut on the fpot where they were performed. 



which they drefs a large caudle of eggs, butter, 
oatmeal and milk •, and bring, befides the ingre- 
dients of the caudle, plenty of beer and whifky ; 
for each of the company muft contribute fomething. 
The rites begin with fpilling fome of the caudle on 
the ground, by way of libation : on that, every one 
takes a cake of oatmeal, upon which are raifed 
ninefquare knobs, each dedicated to fpme partiqular 
being, the fuppofed preferver of their flocks and 
herds, or to fome particular animal, the real de- 
ftroyer of them : each perfon then turns his face to 
the fire, breaks off a knob, and flinging it over his 
fhoulders, fays. This I give to ibee, pre/erve thou 
my horfes •, this to thee, preferve thou my Jheep ; and 
fo on. After that, they ufe the fame ceremony to 
the noxious animals : This I give to thee, O Fox ! 
fpare thou my lambs j this to thee, hooded Cro'W ! 
this to thee, Eagle ! 

When the ceremony is over they dine on the 
caudle •, and after the feaft is finilhcd, what is left 
is hid by two perfons deputed for that purpofc ', 
but on the next Sunday they re-aflTemble, and flnifh 

the reliques of the firft entertainment *. 


* A cuftom, favoring of the Scouh Bel-fein, prevales in 
Ghuctjierjhire, particularly about JV^fw^w/ and the neighboring 
parifhes, on the twelfth day, or on tVt Epiphany, in the even- 
ing : all the fervants of every particular farmer afTemble to- 
gether in one of tne relds that has been fown with wheat ; on 
the border of which, in the moll confpicuous or moft elevated 
place, they make twelve fires of ftraw, in a row ; around one 
of which, made larger tnan the reft, they drink a chearful 
glafs of cyder to their mafter's health, fuccefs to the future 
harvelt, and tlen returniTig home they feaft on cakes, made 
of carraways, &c. fcaked in cyder, which they clame as a re-- 
ward for their pad labars ir. fowing the grain. Thii feems to 


96 A T O U R 

Funeral Oil the death of a Highlander, the corps being 

flretched on a board, and covered with a coarlc 
linncn wrapper, the friends lay on the bread of the 
deceafed a wooden platter, containing a fmall quan- 
tity of fait and earth, feparate and unmixed ; the 
earth, an emblem of the corruptible body ; the fait, 
an emblem of the immortal fpirit. All Hre is ex- 
tinguiflied where a corps is kept; and it is reckoned 
fo ominous, for a dog or cat to pafs over it, that 
the poor animal is killed without mercy. 

late-wake. The Late-'wake is a ceremony ufed at funerals: 

the evening after the death of any perfon, the rela- 
tions and friends of the deceafed meet at the houfe, 
attended by bagpipe or fiddle ; the nearefl; of kin, 
be it wife, fon, or daughter, opens a melancholy 
ball, dancing and greeting ; /. e. crying violently at 
the fame time •, and this continues till day-light ; 
but with fuch gambols and frolicks, among the 
younger part of the company, that the lofs which 
occafioned them is often more than fupplied by the 
confequences of that night *. If the corps remains 
unburied for two nights the fame rites are renewed. 
Thus'y Scytbian-Yikey they rejoice at the deliverance 
of their friends out of this life of mifery. 

Coranich. The Coranichy or fmging at funerals, is flill in 

rofcmble a cuflom of the ssii'icnt Danes, wlio, in their addrcfTes 
to tlieir rural dc-itics, emptied, oti every invocation, a cup ia 
honor of them. Niordi et Frej/E memoria poculis rexolehatury 
annua ut ipjis contingent f elicit as, frugumque et reliqucc annonec 
uberrimus prouentus. Worm. Monum, Dan, lib. i. p. 28. 

* This cuftom was derived from their jiorthern ancellors, 
Longe fecurius tncritndum cjje arbitrantuVy quam I'iijcnduin : 
puerperia luiiu^ fanernque yj/i'vo canfu, ut in plurimutn come- 
hbrantcs. Olaus Magnus. 116. 


I N S C O T L A N D. ^; 

ufc in fome places : the fongs are generally in praife 
of the deceafed -, or a recital of the valiant deeds 
of him, or anceftors. I had not the fortune to be 
prefent at any in 'North Britairiy but formerly af- 
fifted at one in the: fouth oi Tr elands where it was 
performed in the fullnefs of horror. The cries are 
called by the Iriflj the ''Ulogohne and Hullulu, two 
words extremely expreffive of the found uttered on 
thefe occafions, and being oi Celt it tlock, Etymo- 
logifts would fwear to be the origin of the Q?<Q/jjyccv 
of the Greeks, and Vlulatus of the Latins. Virgil 
is very fond of ufing the lafl:, whenever any of his 
females are diftrelTed ; as are others of the Roman 
Poets, and generally on occafions fimilar to this. 

It was my fortiine to arrive at a certain town ia 
Kerry i at the time that a perfoh of ibme drftindion 
departed this life : my curiofiry led me to the houfe,' 
^'here the funeral feemed conduced in the purelt 
clafTical form. 

^odcunque afpicerem lu5ius gemitufq^ue fonahant^ 
Formcque non taciti funeris intiis erat. 
In fliort, the ccnclamatio was fet up by the friends 
in the fame manner as Virgil dcfcribes that confe- 
quential of Dido's death. 

Laraentis gemituque et f^emineo ululatu 

Te^la fremunt. 
Immediately after this followed another ceremony, 
fully defcribed by Cambdcn^ in his account of the 
manners of the ancient Irijlo ; the earneft expoftu- 
lations and reproaches given to the deceafed, for 
quitting this world, where fhe enjoyed fo many 
blelTings, fo good a hufband, fuch fine children. 

H This 

9$ A T O U R 

This cuftom is alfo of great antiquity, for Eurya- 
ius's mother makes the fame pathetic addrcfs t© 
her dead fon. 

Tune ilia feneS^ 
Sera mca: rcquies ? potuijii relinquere folam 
Crudelis ? 
But when the time approached for carrying out the 
corps the cry was redoubled. 

Tremuiis ululatibus athera complent. 
A numerous band of females waiting in the outer 
court, to attend the herfe, and to pay (in chorus) 
the laft tribute of their voices. The habit of this 
forrowing train, and the negle6t of their perfons, 
were admirably fuited to the occafion : their robes 
were black, and flowing, refembling the antient 
Valla j their feet naked, their hair long, and diihe- 
veled : I might truely fay, 

Vidi egomet nigra fuccinEiam vadere palla "" 

Canidiam ; pcdibus nudis, pajjcque capillo 
Cum Sagana majore ululantem. 
Among thefe mourners were difperfed the females, 
who fung the praifes of the deceafed, and were in 
the place of the Mulieres Pr^fica of the Romans, 
and, like them, were a mercenary tribe. I could 
not but obferve that they over-did their parts, as 
Horace acquaints us the mourners of his days did. 
Vt qui conduct pi or an i in funera, diaint 
El faciunt prope plura dolentibus ex animo. 
The corps was carried (lowly along the verge of a 
mod beautifull lake, the iilulatus was continued, 
and the whole proccfTion ended among the vene- 


r^ble ruins of an old abby. But to return to Norib 

Midwives give new-born babes a fmall fpoonfull 
of earth and whifky, as the firfl: food they tafte. 

Before women bake their bannocks, or oatmeal 
cakes, they make a crofs on the laft. 

The notion of fecond-fight ftill prevales in a few Fairies^ 
places : as does the belief of Fairies ; and children 
are watched till the chriftening is over, lead they 
fliould be ftole, or changed. 

Elf-Jhots^ i. e. the ftone arrow heads of the old 
inhabitants of this ifland, are fuppofed to be wea- 
pons (hot by Fairies at cattle, to which are attri- 
buted any diforders they have : in order to effe6t a 
cure, the cow is to be touched by an elf-fliot, or 
made to drink the water in which one has been' 
dipped. The fame virtufc is faid to be found in 
the cryflal gems *, and in the adder-ftone, our Glein 
Naidr \ and it is alfo believed that good fortune 
muft attend the owner ; fo, for that reafon, the firfi: 
is called Clach Bhotiaigh^ or the happy ftone. Cap- 
tain Jrchibald Campbell fhewed me one, a fpheroid 
fet in filver, which people came for the ufe cf 
above a hundred miles, and brought the water it 
was to be dipt in with them ; for without that, in 
human cafes, it was believed to have no effeft. 

Thefe have been fuppofed to be magical ftones 
or gems ufed by the Druidsy to be infpedled by a 
chafte boy, who was to fee in them an apparition in- 
forming him of future events. This impofture, as 

• Woodvjard's Method of Follils, p. 30. See alfo Air. ^u^ 
^/■^'s Mifcellanies, p. 128. 

H 2 wc 

loo A T O U R 

we are told by Dodor JVood-wardy was revived in 
the lad century by the famous Do<5tor Dee, who 
called it h'\speiv ftone and holy Ji one, and pretend- 
ed, by its means, to foretell events. I find in Mak- 
fvucon *, that it was cuftomary in early times to 
depofite Balls of this kind in urns or fepulchers : 
thus twenty were found at Rome in an alabaflrine 
urn : and one was difcovered in 1653, ^"^ ^^*^ tomb 
of Childcric at Tournai j he was King of France, and 
died A. D. 480. 
Aug. 2. i^cfc Carrie, the houfe of Mr. Campbell, fador 

for the Struan eftate, where I had a very hofpitable 
reception the preceding night. Went due eaft •, 
pafled over a bridge crofs the 'TumeU which dil- 
chnrges itfelf out of Lough Raynach. Not far off 
were fome neat fniall houfes, inhabited by veteran 
foldiers, who were fettled here after the peace of 
1 748 •, had land, and three pounds in money given, 
and nine pounds lent, to begin the world with. In 
ibme few places this plan fucceeded ; but in gene- 
j al, was frullrated by the diflipation of thefe new 
colonitls, vvlio could by no means relifh an in- 
duftrious life •, but as foon as the money was fpent, 
which fcldcm lafted long, left their tenements to 
be poflcfTcd by the next comer. 

Saw a flarnping-mill, calculated to reduce lime- 
ftone to a fine powder, in order to favc the expence 
of burning, for manure. The ftampers beat it into 
fmall pieces in a trough, which a (beam of water 
paflTcd through, carrying off the fine parts into a 
proper receptacle, the grofs ones being ftopped by 

* La Motiimens de la Monarchic Fran.oi'e, 

a grate. 


I N S C O T L A N D. loi 

a grate. I did not find that this projefl anfwered -, 
but was told, that the benefit tlie land was to re- 
ceive from it would not appear till the third year. 

On going up a fteep hill have a fine view of the 
lake. Where the mountains almoil clofe, is Mount 
Alexander, where Stru:in once refided, and which 
he called his hermitage : it is a mofb romantic fitua- ~" 

tion, prettily wooded, impending over a fine bafon, 
formed by the Tw/nel, in a deep hollow beneath. At 
the bottom of this hill is Argentine, a little foun- Argentine, 
tain ; to which he gave that name from the filvery 
micie it flings up : near this are feveral rude but 
beautifull walks amidft the rocks and trees, among 
which, in clefts and chafms, I was fliewn the hard 
bed of the poor poet, when his difioyaky had made 
it penal for him to fhew his head. Near this the 
rocks almofl meet, and the river rufhes with vaft 
violence between. Some outlawed A/'Grc-'^crj were 
once furprized on the precipice, and all killed ; 
one, who made a defperate leap upon a ftone in the 
middle of the water, and another to the oppofite 
fide, had the hard fate to be fhot in climbing the 
rocky fleeps. 

A mile lower are the falls of the "Tumel : 1 have 
feen higher ; but, except that of the Rhine, never 
faw one with more water. 

Afcend a very fteep and high hill through a great 
birch wood -, a moft pifturefque fcene, from the 
pendent form of the boughs waving with the wind 
from the bottom to the utmoft fummits of the 
mountain. On attaining the top, had a view of a 
jjeautifull little 5/rj/V/?',. fertile and prettily wooded, 

H 3 with 

102 A T O U R 

with the river in the middle, forming numbers of 
quick meanders; then iuddenly fwelling into a lake, 
that fills the vale from fide to fide ; is about three 
miles long, and retains the name of the river. After 
riding along a black moor, in fight of vaft moun- 
tains, arrive at 

Blair *, or /f/>6o/-Houfe, feated on an eminence 
above a plain, watered by the Carrie, an outrageous 
ftream, whofe ravages have greatly deformed the 
vally, by the vaft beds of gravel which it has left 
behind. The houfe was once fortified, and held a 
fiege againft the Rebels in 1 746 j but at prefent it 
is much reduced in height, and the infide highly, 
finifhed by the noble owner. The mod fingular 
piece of furniture is a cheft of drawers made of 
broom, moft elegantly flriped in veins of white and 
t broom brown. This plant grows to a great fize in Scot- 
' land, and furnifhes pieces of the breadth of fix 


Near the houfe is a fine walk furrounding a very 
deep glen finely wooded, but deficient in water at 
the bottom •, but on the fide of the walk pn the 
rock is a fmall cryftalline fountain, inhabited at 
that time by a pair of Naiads, in form of golden 

Hang'-n^ft. fifh. In a fpruce fir was a hang-neft of fome un- 
known bird, fufpended at the four corners to the 
boughs •, it was open at top, an inch and a half in 
diameter, and two deep •, the fides and bottom 
thick, the materials mofs, worfi:ed, and birch bark, 
lined with hair and feathers. The dreams afford 

Parr^ the Parr, a fmall fpccie^ of Trout, feldom excecd- 

♦ Or the plain where a baitle had been fought. 





ing eight inches in Ictigth, marked on the fides 
with nine large bluifli fpots, and on the lateral line 
with fmall red ones *. 

This country is very mountainous, has no natural 
woods except of birch ; but the vaft plantations that 
begin to cloath the hills will amply fupply thefe 
defefts. There is a great quantity of oats raifed 
in this neighborhood, and numbers of black cattle 
reared, the refources of the exhaufted parts of 
South Britain. 

Vifit the pafs of Killicrankie, about five miles KHHcran^ie, 
fouth of Blair : near the northern entrance was 
fought the battle between the Vifcount Dundee and 
General Mackay, in which the firft was killed in the 
moment of victory. The pafs is extremely narrow, 
between high mountains, with the Carrie running 
beneath in. a deep, darkfome, and rocky channel, 
over-hung with trees, forming a fcene of horrible 
grandeur. The road through this ftrait is very fincj 
formed by the foldiery lent by the Government, 
who have rixpence/»<?r day from the country befides 
their pay. About a mile beyond the pafs, Mr. 
Jlol?ertfon*Sy ofFa/^ally, appears like fairy ground 
amidll thefe wild rocks, feated in a moft beautiful! 
meadow, watered by the river Tumel, furrounded 
with pretty hills finely wooded. 

The Duke of Athors, eftate is very extenfive, and 
the country populous : while valTalage exifted, the 
chieftain could raife two or three thoufand fighting 
men, and leave fuificient at home to take care of 
the ground. The forefts, or rather chafes, (for 

• Br. Zoo!, illujlr. 

H 4 they 

104 A T O U R 

they are quite naked) are very extenfiye, an4 feed 

yaft numbers of Stags, which range> at certain 

times of the year, in herds of five hundred. Some 

grow to a great fize : I have heard of one that 

weighed iS ftone, Scots^ or 3141b. exclufive of 

head, entrails and fkin. The hunting of thcfe 

animals v/as formerly after the manner of ^nEaJIern 

•Great hunt- monarch. Thoufands of vaflals furrounded a great 

?"^'; trafl of country, and drove the Deer to the fpot 

where the Chieftains wereftationed, who Ihotthem 

at their leifure. The magnificent hunt, made by 

an Earl of yf//?c/, near this place, for the amufe- 

ment of James Y. and the Qiieen- mother, is too 

remarkable to be omitted ; the relation is therefore 

given as defcribed by Sir David Lindfay of the 

Mount *, who, in all probability, afTifted at it. 

" The Earl oi Athole, hearing of the King's 
" coming, made great prpvilion for him in all 
" things pertaining to a prince, diat iie was as well 
" ferved and eafed, with all things neceflary to his 
** eftate, as he had been in his own palace o{ Edin-; 
'* hur^^h. For \ heard fay, this noble Earl gart 
** make a curious palace to the King, to his Mo- 
«> *' ther, and to the EmbafTador, where they were 
" fo honourably eafed and lodged as they had been 
*' in England^ France^ Italy^ or Spain^ concerning 
** the lime and equivalent, for their hunting and 
'" paffime •, which was builded in the midft of a 
" fair meadow, a fair palace of green timber, 
*J wind with green' birks, that were green both 

* Hiji. ScoilanJf 146. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 165 

*' under and above, which was fafl^ioned in four 
" quarters, and in every quarter and nuik thereof 
*' a great round, as it had been a block-houfc, 
" which was lofted and gefted the fpace of three 
" houfe height ; the floors laid with green fcarets 
" fpreats, medwarts and flowers, that no man 
*' knew whereon he zeid, but as he had been in a * 
•* garden. Further, there were two great rounds ^- 
*' in ilk fide of the gate, and a great portculleis 
*' of trte, falling down with the manner of a bar- 
*' race, with a draw-bridge, and a great flank of 
" water of fixteen foot deep, and thirty foot of 
*' breadth. And alfo this palace within was hung 
*? with fine tapeftry and arrafles of filk, and lighted 
** with fine glafs windows in all airths ; that this 
*' palace was as pleafantly decored, with all necef- 
*' faries pertaining to a prince, as it hr.d been his 
*' own palace-royal at home. Further, this Earl 
*' gart make fuch provifion for the King, and his 
" Mother, and the Embaflador, that they had all 
" manner of meats, drinks, and delicates tliat were 
'* to be gotten, at that time, in all Scotland^ either 
" in burgh or land •, that is to fay, all kind of 
" drink, as ale, beer, wine, botli white and claret, 
*' maheryy mu/kadel, Hippocras-, aqiiavita. Further, 
*' there was of meats, wheat-bread, main-bread 
" and ginge bread ; with fiefnes, beef, mutton, 
** lamb, veal, venifon, goofe, grice, capon, coney, 
** cran, fwan, partridge, plover, duck, drake, 
*' briflTel-cock and pawnes, black-cock and muir- 
*' fowl, cappercaillies : and alio the ftanks, that 
f' were round about the palace, were full of all 

*^ delicate 

c^ A T O U R 

delicate fiflies, as falmonds, fronts, pearches, 
" pikes, eels, and all other kind of delicate fifhes 
*' that could be gotten in frelh waters ; and all 
" ready for the banket. Syne were there proper 
" ftewards, cunning baxters, excellent cooks and 
*' potingars, with confeflions and drugs for their 

deferts ; and the halls and chambers were pre- 
**" pared with coftly bedding, vefTcl and napery, 
** according for a king, fo that he wanted none of 
*' his orders more than he had been at home in his 
" own palace. The King remained in this wilder- 
'* nefs, at the hunting, the fpace of three days and 
" three nights, and his company, as I have fhewn. 
** I heard men fay, it coft the Earl oi Athole^ every 
" day, in expences, a thoufand pounds." 

But 'hunting meetings, among the great men, 
were often the preludes to lebellion ; for under that 
pretence they coUeded great bodies of men without 
fufpicion, which at length occafioned an a<5t of par- 
lement prohibiting fuch dangerous aiTemblies. ^ 

Set out for the county oi Aberdeen-, ride eaftward 
over a hill into Glen-Tilt^ famous in old times for 
producing the moft hardy warriors •, is a narrow 
glen, feveral miles in length, bounded on each fide 
ty mountains of an amazing height^on the fouth 
is the great hill of Ben y glo, whofe bafe is thirty- 
five miles in circumference, and whofe fummit 
towers far above the others. The fides of many of 
thefe mountains are covered with fine verdure, and 
aic excellent fiieep-walks : but entirely woodlefs. 
The road is the moft dangerous and the moft hor- 

I N S C O T L A N D. lo; 

rible I ever iravelled : a narrow path, fo rugged 
that our horfes often were obliged to crofs their 
legs, in order to pick a fecure place for their feet ; 
while, at a confiderable and precipitous depth be- 
neath, roared a black torrent, rolling through a bed 
of rock, Iblid in every, part but where the Tilt had 
worn its antient way. Salmon force their paffage 
even as high as this dreary ftream, in fpite of the 
diftance from the fea, and the difficulties they have " '^ 
to encounter, 

Afcend a fleep hill, on the top of which we re- 
frelhed ourfelves with fome goats whey, at a Sheelin^ Sheellns. 
or, as it is fometimes called, An-ie*^ and Bolbay^a. 
dairy-houfe, where the Highland fhepherds, or gra- 
ziers, live during fummer with their herds and 
flocks, and during that feafon make butter and 
cheefe. Their whole furniture confifts of a few 
horn fpoons, their milking utenfils, a couch formedi 
of fods to lie on, and a rug to cover them. Their 
food oat- cakes, butter or cheefe, and often the 
coagulated blood of their cattle fpread on their 
bannocks. Their drink milk, whey, and fome- 
times, by way of indulgence, whifky. Such dairy- 
houfes are rommon to moft mountainous countries : 
thofe in IVales are called Foilys, or Summer-houfes ; 
thofe on the Swifs Alps, Se fines. 

Dined on the fide of Locb-'Till, a fmall piece of 
water, fwarming with Trouts. Continued our jour- 
ney over a wild, black, moory, melancholy trad. 
Reached Brae-mar f •, the country aimoft inltantly 

• /. e. a boufe made of turf. 

•f- Jirae, fignifks a llcep face of-any hiJl. 


108 A T O U R 

changed, and in lieu of dreary waftcs, a rich vale, 
plenteous in corn and grafs, fucceeded. Crofs the 
Dee near its head, which, from an infignificanc 
flream, in the courfe of a very few miles, increafcs 
to the fizeof a great river, from the influx of num- 
Brae-mar. bers of Other waters. The rocks of Brae-mar^ on 
the caft, are exceedingly romantic, finely wooded 
with pine. The clifTs are very lofty, and their front 
mofl rugged and broken, with vaft pines growing 
out of their fifilires. 

"This tra£b abounding with game, was, in old 
times, the annual refort of numbers of nobility, 
who affembled here to pafs, a month or two in the 
amufements of the chafe. Their huntings refem- 
bled campaigns ; they lived in temporary cottages, 
called Lonquhards^ were all dreffed in an uniform 
habit conformable to that of the country, and 
pafled their time with jollity and good chear, mod 
admirably defcribed hy John Taylor^ the water poet, 
who, in 1618, made there his Pennilejfe Pilgrimage, 
and defcribes, in page 135, the rural luxury with 
all the glee of a Sancbo Panfa. 

*' I thank my good Lord Erjlin^ (fays the Poet) 
'* hee commanded that I (boukl alwayes.^ee lodged 
" in his lodging, the kitchen being alwayes on the 
*' fide of a banke, many kettles and pots boyling, 
" and many fpits turning and winding, with great 
" variety of cheere : as venifon bak'd, fodden, roft 
" and (lu'de bccfe, mutton, goates, kid, hares, 
" frefli falmon, pidgeons, hens, capons, chickens, 
" partridge, moore-coots, heath-cocks,caperkcllies, 
**- anci termagants; good ale, facke, white and cla- 

I N S C O T L A N D. 105 

*' ret, tent (or Allegant) and moft potent aqua^ 


• The French, during the reign o^ Charles IX. feemed not 
only to have made full as large facrifices lo Diana and Bacchus^ 
but even thought their entertainment incomplete without the 
prefence of Venus, yacques du rouilloux, a celebrated writer 
on hunting of that age, with n-.uch ftrioufnefj defcribes all 
the requifites for the chafe, and thus places and equips the 
jovial crew : — * L'Aflemblee fe doit faire en quelque beau 
« lieu foubs des arbres aupres d'une fontaine ou Ruilfeau, la 

* ou les veneurs fe doiuent tous rendre pour faire leur rapport. 

* Ce pendant le Sommelier doit venir avec trois bons chevaux 

* chargez d'inilrumens pour anoufer le gofier, conime cou- 

* trets, barraux, baril?, flacons et bouteilles : lefquelles doiuent 

* eftre pleines de bon vin d'' Arbors, de Beaume, de Chaloce et de 

* Graue : luy eftant defcendu du cheval, les metra refraifchir 

* en I'eau. ou bien les pou:ra faire refroidir avec du Can ire : 

* apres il eftandra la nappe fur la verdure. Ce fait, le cuifi- 
< uier s'en viendra charge de plufieurs hons hamois de gueuUy 

* comme jambons, langues de bcEuf fumees, groins, et wreilles 

* de pourceau, cervelats, efchinees, pieces de bccuf de Saifon, 

* carbonnades, jambons de Maxeuce, paftez, longes de veau 

* froides couuertes de poudre blanche, et autres menus fuf- 

* frages pour remplir le boudin iequel il metra fur la nappe. 

' Lors le Roy ou le Seigneur avec ceux de fa table eftren- 

* dront leurs manteaux fur I'herbe, et fe coucheront de coRe 

* deffus, beuuans, mangeans, rians et faifans grand chere ;* 

* and that nothing might be wanting to render the encertain- 
ment of fuch a fet of merry men quite complete, honeil Jacques 
adds, ' et s'il y a quelque fcmme de reputation ea ce pays 

* qui fafle plaifir aux compagnons, elle doit etre aileguee, et 

* fes paffages ct remuemens de feffes, attendant le rapport a 

* venir.' ( 

But when the great man falHes out to the chace of foxes and 
badgers, he feems not to leave fo important an affair to chance, 
fo fets off thus amply provided in his triumphal car, « Le 

* Seigneur, {dys FouillouxJ doit avoir fa petite charrette, la 

* oii il fera dedans, avec la Fillctte aagee de feize a dix fept 
' ans, laquelle luy frottera la telle par les chcmins. Toutes 

* les chevilles et paux de la charrett" do!ucnt eflre garnis de 

* flaccons et bouteilles, et doit avoir au bout de la charrette 

* un cofTre de bois, plein decoqs d'inde froids, jambons, lan- 
« gues de Bceufs et autre bons harno.s de gueule, Et fi c'eft 

* en temps d'hiver, il pourra faire porter fon petit pavilion, 

* et faire du feu dedans pour fe chauffer, ou bien donner un 
« coup en robbe a la nymphe.' ^. 3-. ~^, 

" All 

no A T O U R 

" All thefc, and more than thcfe, we had conti- 
*' nually, in fuperfluous abundance, caught by 
" faulconers, fowlers, fifhers, and brought by my 
*' Lord's (Mrr) tenants and purveyors, to vidual 
*' our campe, which confided of fourteen or fifteen 
" hundred men, and horfes. The manner of the 
" hunting is this : five or fix hundred men doe rife 
*' early in the morning, and they doedifpcrfe them- 
*' felves divers wayes, andfeven, eight, or ten miles 
" compaffe, they doe bring or chafe in the deer in 
*' many heards (two, three, or four hundred in a 
" heard) to fuch or fuch a place, as the noblemen 
" fhall appoint them ; then when day is come, the 
*' lords and gentlemen of their companies doe ride 
** or go to the laid places, fometimes wading up to 
" the middles through bournes and rivers •, and . 
" then they being come to the place, doe lye dov/n 
*' on the ground till thofe forefaid fcouts, which 
*' are called xh^Tinckhell^ do bring down the deer; 
*' but, as the proverb fays of a bad cooke, fo thefe 
*' Tinckheli men doe lick their own fingers ; for, 
*' befides their bowes and arrows which they carry 
" with them, wee can heare now and then a hargue- 
" bufe, or a mufquet, goe off, which doe feldom 
" difdiarge in vaine : then after we had flayed 
' " three hourcs, or thereabouts, we might perceive 

" the deer appeare on the hills round about us, 
" (their heads making a fhew like a wood) which 
" being followed clofe by the Thickbeli, are chafed 
" down into the valley where wee lay j then all the 
** valley on each fide bfing way-laid with a hun- 
** dred couple of ftrong Iridi grey-hounds, they arc 

*' let 

I N S C O T L A N D. m 

" let loofe, as occafion lerves, upon the heard of 
" deere, that with dogs, gunnes, arrowes, durks 
*' and daggers, in the fpace of two houres fourfcore 
*' fat deere were flaine, which after are difpofed of 
*' forae one way and fome another, twenty or thirty 
" miles, and more than enough left for us to make 
*' merry withall at our rendevouze. Being come 
*' to our lodgings, there was llich baking, boyling, 
*' rolling and ftewing, as if Cook Ruffian had been 
" there to have fcalded the Devill in his feathers." 
But to proceed. 

Pafs by the caftle of Brae-fftar, a fquare tower, 
built about a hundred and fifty years ago, to curb 
the difcontented chieftains ; but at prefent unnecef- 
farily garrifoned by a company of foot, being 
rented by the Government from Mr. Farquharfou^ 
of Invercauld, whofe houfe I reached in lefs than 
half an hour. 

Invercauld is feated in the centre of the Grampw.n 
hills, in a fertile vale, walhed by the Bee-> a large; 
and rapid river : nothing can be more beautifuil 
than the different views from the feveral parts of it. 
On the northern entrance, immenle ragged and 
broken crags bound one fide of the profpedl; over 
whofe grey fides and fummitsisfcattered the melan- 
choly green of the pidurefquC' pine^ which grows 
out of the naked rock, where one would think na^ 
ture would have denied vegetation. 

A little lower down is the caftle above-men- 
tioned ; formerly a necelTary curb on the little 
kings of the country j but at prefent ferves fcarce 
any purpofe, but to adorn the landfcape. 


ii« A TOUR 

I'hc views from the flcirts of the plain, near Liver-' 
cauldy are very great ; the hills that immediately 
bound it arc cloathed with trees, particularly with 
birch, whofe long and pendant boughs, waving a 
vaft height above the head, furpafa the beauties of 
the weeping willow. 

Thefouthcrn extremity is pre-eminently magni- 
ficent •, the mountains form there a va(t theatre, 
the bolom of which is covered with cxtenfive forefts 
of pines : above, the trees grow fcarcer and fcarcer, 
and then feem only to fprinkle t!ie furface •, afie:^ 
which vegetation ceafes, and naked fummits * of a 
furprifing height fucceed, many of them topped 
with perpetual fnow •, and, as a fine contraft to the 
fcene, the great cataradl of Garval-bcurriy which 
feems at a diftance to divide the whole, foams 
amdift the dark forcft, rufhing from rock to rock 
to a vaft diftance. 

Some of thefe hills are fuppofed to be the highcft 
part of Great Lriiain : their height has not yet been 
taken, but the conjedure is made from the great 
defcent of the Dee, which runs from Brae-mar -f- ta 
the fea, above feventy miles, with a moft rapid 

Rode to take a nearer view of the environs ; 

crofied the Dee on a good (lone-bridge, built by 

the Government, and entered on excellent roads 

rin« Foreft. ii^t^<-> ^ magnificent forefl: of pines of many miles 

extent. Some of the trees are of a vaft fjzej I mea- 

• The higheft is called Ben v hcurJ, under which is a fmall 
lough, which 1 was told had ice the latter end of July. 

\ The moft diftaut from the fca of any place in }sorth 

2 fured 


fured feveral that were ten, eleven, and even twelve 
feet in circumference, and near fixty feet high, 
forming a mod beautiful! column, with a fine ver- 
dant capital. Thefe trees are of a great age, having, 
as is fuppofed, feen two centuries. The value of 
thefe trees is confiderable ; Mr. Farqtiharfon in- 
formed me, that by fawing and retailing them, he 
has got for eight hundred trees five-and-twenty 
(hillings each : they are fawed in an adjacent faw- 
hiill, into plank ten feet long, eleven inches broad j 
and three thick, and fold for two fnillings apiece. 

Ntar tnis antient foreil is another, confiding of 
fmaller trees, almoft as high, but very (lender; one 
grows in a fmgular manner out of the top of a 
great done, and notwithdanding it feems to have 
no other nouridiment than what it gets from the 
dews, is above thirty feet high. 

The profpeft above thefe foreds is very extraor- 
dinary, a didant view of hills over a furface of ver- 
dant pyramids of pines. 

This whole tra6t abounds with game : the Stags Stags, 
at this time were ranging in the mountains -, but 
the little Roebucks * were perpetually bounding Roej, 
before us -, tnd. the black game often fprung under 
our feet. The tops of the hills fwarmed with Grcus Bird?; 
and Ptarmigans. Green Plovers, Whimbrels, and 
Snow-flecks -f-, breed here : the lad aflemble in 
great flocks during winter, and collect fo clofely in 
their eddying flight as to give the fportfman oppor- 

• Thefe animals are reared with great difficulty; even 
when taken young, eight out of ten generally die. 
f £r. Zob/. illujir. 17. tab. xi. 

i tutjty 

114 A T O U R 

turity of killing numbers at a Ihot. Eagles *, 
Fcregrinc Falcons, and Go{hawI;s breed here : 
the Falcons in rocks, the Gofhawks in trees : the 
laft piirlucs its prey an end, and dafhcs through 
every thing in purfuit •, but if it miflTes its quarry 
dcfuls from following it after two or three hun- 
dred yards flight. Thefe birds are profcribed ; 
half a crown is given for an eagle, a (hilling for a 
hawk, or hooded crow. 

Foxes are in thele parts very ravenous, feeding 
on roes, (beep, and even (he g02L«i. 

Rooks vilit thefe vales in autumn, to feed on 
the different fort of berries; but neither winter nor 
breed here. 

I faw fiying in the forefls the greater Bulfinch of 
Mr. Ed-xards^ t::h. 125, 1 24. the Loxia enuckatcr of 
Lirir.jcuSt whofc food is the feed of pine cones j a 
bird conr.mon to the north of Europe and America. 

On our return pafled under feme hi;;h cliftsj with 

B>ch Woods, large woods of birch intermixed. This tree is ufcd 

for all forts of implements of hufbandry, rtx)nng 

of fmall houfeii, wheels, fuel •, the Highlanders alfo 

tan their own leather with the bark ; and a great 

deal of excellent wine is extra^cd from the live 

tree. Observed among thefe rocks a fort of pn>- 

jecting (htlr, on which had been a hut, accefliblc 

only by the help of fbmc thongs fattened by fome 

very expert climbers, to which the family got, in 

time of danger, in former days, with their mofl 

valuable moveables. 

• The P.icg adJ Eajl?, called here the Black £«§>. I 
fufpect, from the deicripdcn, th-i the Botrel breeds here. 
1 heard alfo cf a bird, Ciilcd ice ^vcK.j.i jui cmim, b.: 
coald not pfx>care it. 



The honfcs of the common pccple in thefe parts Cottages. 
are fhocking to humanity, formed of Joofe ftones, 
and covered with clods, which they call devijlo^ or 
with heath, broom, or branches of fir : they look, 
at a diftance, like fo many black mole-hills. The 
inhabitants live very poorly, on oatmeal, barley- 
cakes, and potatoes ; their drink whifky fweetened 
with honey. 'The men are thin, but ftrong-, idle 
and lazy, except employed in the chace, or any 
thing that looks like amufement ; are content with 
their hard fare, and will not exert themfelves far- 
ther than to get what they deem necefTaries. The 
women are more induftrious, fpin their own huf- 
bands cloaths, and get money by knitting flocking?, 
the great trade of the county. The common wo- 
men are in general moll remarkably plain, and foon 
acquire an old look, and by being much expofed 
to the weather without hats, fuch a grin, and 
contraflion of the mufcles, as heightens greatly 
their natural hardnefs of features : I never faw fo 
much plainnefs among the lower rank of females^ 
but the ne plus ultra of hard features is not found 
till you arrive among the fifh- women of Aberdeen. 
Tenants pay their rent generally in this country 
in money, except what they pay in poultry, which 
is done to promote the breed, as the gentry are fo 
remote from any market. Thofe that rent a mill 
pay a hog or two; an animal fo detelled by the 
Highlanders, that very few can be prevailed on to 
tafte it, in any fiiape. Labor is here very cheap, 
the ufual pay being fifty fliiUings a year, and two 
pecks of oatmeal a week. 

I 2 Purfucd 


ii6 A T O U R 

Aug. 6- Purfiied my journey caft, along a beautiful! road 
by the river fide, in figlu of the pine forefts. The 
Vale now grows narrow, and is filled with woods 
of birch and alder. Saw on the road- fide the feats 
of gentlemen high built» and once dcfenfibk. The 
peafants cultivate their little land with great care to 
the very edge df the ftony hills. All tlie way are 
vafl: maifcs of granite, the fame vvliich is called in 
Cornwall, Moor-ftone. 

The Glen contrads, and the mountains approach 
each other. Quit the Highlands, pafling between 
Paft of BoUi» two great rocks, called the Pafs of Bollitir, a very 
narrow (trait, whofe bottom is covered with the 
tremendous ruins of the precipices that bound the 
road. I was informed, that here the wind rages 
with great fury during winter, and catching up the 
fnow in eddies, whirls it about with fuch impe- 
tuofity, as makes it dangerou-i for man or bead to 
be out at that time. Rain alio pours down fome- 
times in deluges, and carries with it (lone and 
gravel from the hills in fuch quantity, that I have 
feen thefe fpatcs, as they are called, lie crofs the 
roads, as the avelenches, or fnow-falls, do thofe of 
the Alps. In many pans of the Highlands were 
hofpitia for the reception of travellers, called by 
the Scotch, Spittles, or hofpitals : the fame were 
ufual in fVales, where they are ftyled Tfpitty, and, 
in both places, were maintained by the religious 
houfes : as fimilar yjfylums are to this day fup- 
portcd, in many parts of the Alps. 

This pafs is the caftern entrance into the High- 
lands. The country now allumes a new face : the 


I N S C O T L A N D. 117 

hills grow lefs ; but the land more barren, and is 
chiefly covered with heath and rock. The edges 
of the Bee are cultivated, but the reft only in 
patches, among which is generally a groupe of 
fmall houfes. There is alfo a change of trees, oak 
being the principal wood, but not much of that. 
Refrelhed my horfes at a hamlet called Tiilloch^ and 
looking weft, faw the great mountain Laghin y gair^ 
which is always covered with fnow. 

Obferved feveral vaft plantations of pines, 
planted by gentlemen near their feats : fuch a laud- 
able fpirit prevales in this refpedl, that in another 
half-century it never fiiall be faid, that to fpy the 
nakednefs of the land are you come. 

Dine at the little village of Kincaird. Here- 
abouts the common people cultivate a great deal of 
cabbage. The oat-fields are inclofed with rude 
low mounds of ftone. 

Lay at a mean houfe at Banck&rie. The country, 
from Bollitir to this place, dull, unlefs where va- 
ried with the windings of the river, or with the 

The nearer to Aberdeen, the lower the country Aug. 7. 
grows, and the greater quantity of corn : in ge- 
neral, oats and barley ; for there is very little 
wheat fown in thefe parts. Reach 

Aberdeen, a fine city, lying on a fmall bay abeideek, 
formed by the Bee*, deep enough for fliips of two 
hundred tuns. The town is about two miles in 
circumference, and contains thirteen thoufand fouls, 

;>nd about three thoufand in the fuburbs. It once 
* The bridge lies about two miles fouth of the town, and 
confiils of feven neat arches. 

I -^ enjoyed 

iiJ A T O U R 

enjoyed a good fhare of the tobacco trade, but was 
at length forced to refign it to Glafgciv^ which was 
fo much more convenif ntly fituated for it. At pre- 
fent, its in^.ports are from the Baltic^ and a few 
merchants tiade to the M'^eji-hdies and North 
Stockin" America. Its exports are (lockings, thread, fal- 
trade. nion, and ont-meal : the firil is a moft important 
article, as appears by the following ftate of it. For 
this manufadure, 20,800 pounds worth of wool 
is annually imported, and i6co pounds worth 
of oil. Of this wool is annually made 69,333 
dozen pairs of {lockings, worth, at an average, 
il. IDS. /)^r dozen. Thefe are made by the country 
people, in almoft all parts of this great county, 
who get 4s. pr dozen for fpinning, and 14s. "per 
dozen for knitting •, fo that there is annually paid 
them 62,3291. 14s. And befides, there is about 
2000I. value of {lockings manufaflured from the 
wool of the county, which encourages the breed of 
fheep much •, for even as high as Invercauld, the 
farmer fells his {heep at twelve {liillings apiece, and 
keeps them till they are four or five yecirs old, for 
the fake of the wool. About 200 combers are 
alfo employed con{lantly. The thread manufac- 
ture is another confiderable article, tho' trifling 
in comparifon of the woollen. 
Salmon. The faimon fifheries on the Bee and the Don, are 
a good branch of trade : about 46 boats, and 130 
men, are employed on the firll; and in fome years, 
167,0001b. of fi(h have been fcnt pickled to Lon- 
don, and about 930 barrels of faked fi{h exported 
to France, Ilaly, &c. The {ilhery on the Don is 
far lefs confiderable. 

The town of Aberdeen is in general well built, 


I N S C O T L A N D. II9 

with granite from the neighboring quarries. The 
beft ftreet, or rather p/^f^, is the Caftle-ftreet : in 
the middle is an odlagon building, with neat bas 
relievos of the Kings of Scotland, from James I. to 
James VII. The Town-houfe makes a good figure, 
and has a handfome fpire in the centre. 

The eaft and weft churches are under the fame 
roof; for the North Britons obferve oeconomy even 
in their religion : in one I obferved a fmall (hip 
hung up-, a votive offering frequent enough in 
Popijh churches, but appeared very unexpe6kdly 

In the church-yard lies Andre'-jj Canty minifler of AndreiuCunti 
Aherdeen^irom whom the Spcftator derives the word 
to cant ; but, in all probability, Andrew canted no 
more than the reft of his brethren, for he lived in 
a whining age * ; the word therefore feems to be 
derived from canto, from their fmging out their 

In the fame place are multitudes of long-winded 
epitaphs ; but the following, though fhort, has 
a moft elegant turn : 

Si fides, fi humanitas, multoque gratus lepore candor 5 
Si fuorum amor, amicomm charitas, omniumque Be- 

nevokntia fpiritum reducere pojfent, 
Hattdheic/jtus {^^z Johannes Burnet a Elrick.1747. 
The college is a large old building, founded by College^ 
George Earl of Marechal, 1593- On one fide is 
this ftrange infcription ; probably alluding to feme 
fcoffers at that time : 

• In CiarUf the Fir It's dm*. 

I 4 They 

A T Q U R 

They have feid, 
Quhat lay thay ? 
Let Yame fay. 

In the great room are feveral good pidlurcs. A 
head of the Founder. The prefent Lord Marechal 
when young, and General Keith, his brother. Bi- 
fhop Burrtet in his robes, as Chancellor of the Gar- 
ter. A head of Mnry Stuart, m black, with a 
crown in one hand, a crucifix in the other. Arthur 
Jonjlon, a fine head, by Jamefcn. Andrew Canty 
\>y the fame. Gordon, of Strahkcb, publifher of the 
maps, and feveral others, by Jamefon. 

In the library is the alcoran on vellum, finely 

A He}?rew Bibl^, Manufcript, with Rabinical 
jiotes, on vellum. 

Jfidori excerpta ex lihro : a great curiofity, being a 
complete natural hiftory, with figures, richly illu- 
rninated on fquares of plated gold, on vellum. 

A Paraphfafe on the Revelation, by JarAes VL 
with notes, in the King's own hand. 

A fine miflal *. 

There are aboiU a hundred and forty ftudents 
jjelonging to this college. 

The grammar-fchool is a low but neat building. 
Gordon^ hofpital is handfome -, in front is a good 
ftatue of the founder : it maintains forty boys, 
children of the inhabitants of Aberdeen^ who are 
apprenticed at proper ages. 

• There is alfo a very curious filver chain fix feet long', 
found in the ruins of the White Fryers; at one end is a 
round flat plate, on the other apear-fhapcd appendage. 



The infirmary is a large plain building, and fends 
, out between eight and nine hundred cured patients 

On the fide of the Great Bleachery, which is 
common to the town, are the publick walks. Over 
a road, between the Caftle-ftreet and the river, is a 
very handfome arch, which muft attradl the atten- 
tion of the traveller. 

On the eafl of the town is a work begun by 
Cromzsi^el, from whence is a fine view of the fea : ' 

, beneath is a fmall patch of ground, noted for pro- 
ducing very early barley, which was then reaping- 

Prices of provifions in this town were thcfe : Provlfions,. 
Beef, (i6 ounces to the pound) 2d. ■*-. to 56. mut- 
ton the fame; butter, (28 ounces to the pound) 6d. 
to 8d. cheefe, ditto, 46. to 4d. -!-■ ^ large pullet; 
.6d. or lod. duck, the fame ; goofe, 2S. 3d. 

Crofs the harbour to the granite quarries that Granite 
contribute to fupply London with paving-ftones : 
the Hone lies either in large nodules or ip (hattery 
beds, are cut into fhape ; and the fmal.1 pieces for 
the middle of the ftreets are put on board for 
feven Ibillings per tun, the lopg ftones at ten- 
pence per foot. 

Vifited old Aberdeen^ about a mile north of the Aug. s. 
new i a poor town, feated not far from the Bon. ^^'^ ^^herdeeiu 
The college is built round a fquare with cloifters. 
The chapel is very ruinous within \ but there ftill 
remains fome wood- work of exquifite v^orkmanfhip- 
This was preferved by the fpirit of the Provoft, 
at the time of the reformation, who armed his peo- 
ple and checked the blind z^al of the populace. 


T22 /V T O U R 

The library is large. The moft remarkable 
things are, 'John Trevifa's tranflation of HigderCs 
Folydronicon^ in 1387 ; the manufcript excellently 
wrote, and the language very good, for that time. 
A very neat Tiutch miflal, with elegant paintings on 
the margin. Another, of the angels appearing to 
the fhepherds, with one of the men playing on the 
bagpipes. A manufcript catalogue of the old trea- 
fury of the college. 

He5lor Boethius was the firfl principal of the col- 
lege, and fent for from Paris for that purpofe, on 
an annual falary of forty marks, Scots^ at thirteen- 
pence each. The fquare tower on the fide of the 
college was built by CrcmiveU for the reception of 
ftudents ; of which there are about a hundred be- 
longing to the college, who lie in it. 

In Bifhop Elphinfton\ hall, who was the founder, 
is a piflure of Bifliop Dunbar^ who finifhed what 
the other left incomplete. Forbes^ Bifhop of Aber- 
deen^ and ProfeiTors Sandiland and Gordon^ by 
Jamefon. The Sybils : faid to be done by the fame 
hand, but fcemed to me in too different a ftyle to 
be his j but the Sybilia AEgyptiaca and Erytbraa 
are in good attitudes. 

The cathedral is very antient •, no more than the 
two very antique fpires and one ifle, which is ufed 
as a church, are now remaining. 

From a tumulus^ called Tillie dron^ now covered 
with trees, is a fine view of an cxtenfive and rich 
corn country •, once a moft barren fpot, but, by the 
induftry of the inhabitants brought to its p'refent 
ftate. A pretty vale bordered with wood, the ca- 

I N S C O T L A N D. 123 

thedral foaring above the trees, and the river Bon^ 
form all together a mod agreeable profpedl. 

Beneath are fome cruives, or wears, to take fal- 
mon in. The owners are obliged by law to make 
the rails of the cruives * of a certain width, to per- 
mit fi(h of a certain fize to pafs up the river ; but 
as that is negledled, they pay an annual fum to the 
owners of the fifherics which lie above, to compen- 
fate the lofs. 

In the Regiam Majefiatem are preferved feveral 
antient laws relating to the falmon fifheries, couched 
in terms expreflive of the fimplicity of the times. 

From Saturday night till Monday morning, they 
were obliged to leave a free pafTage for the filh, 
which is ityled the Saterdnyes Sloppe -f. 

Alexander I. enaded, ' That the (Ireame of the 

* water fal be in all parts fwa free, that ane fwine 

* of the age of three zeares, well i^td, may turne 

* himfelf within the ftreame round about, fwa that 

* his fnowt nor taill fall not touch the bank of the 

* water. 

* Slayers of reide fiflie or fmoltes of falmond, 

* the thirde time are punifhed with death. And 

* fic like he quha commands the famine to be 

* done.* Jac. IV. pari. S.Jlat.Roh. III. 

Continue my journey : pafs over the bridge of Awe. 9, 
Don ; a fine gothic arch fiung over that fine river, 
from one rock to the other : ride for fome miles on 
the fea fands j pafs through Newhurghy a fmaU 
village, and at low water ford the Tihen, a river 

• Cruives, &c. Hiall have their heeke two inches wide, 
that the fry may pafs. R06. I. 

^ produ6live 

X24 A T O U R 

produflive of the pearl mufcle : go through the 
parifli of Furvie-t now entirely overwhelmed with 
fand, (except two farms) and about 500I. ^i^r ann. 
loft to the Errol family, as appears by the oath of 
the faftor, made before the court of feffions in 
1600, to afeertain the minifter's falary. It was at 
Inundarion that time all arable land, now covered with fhifting 
fands, like the deferts of Arabia^ and no veftiges 
remain of any buildings, except a fmall fragment 
of the church. 

The country now grows very flat ; produces 
oats J but the crops are confiderably worfe than 
in the preceding country. Reach 

Bownefs^ or Buchanefs^ the feat of the Earl of 
ErroU perched like a falcon's neft, on the edge of 
a vaft cliff above the fea. The drawing-room, a 
large and very elegant apartment, hangs over it , 
the waves run in wild eddies round the rocks be- 
neath, and the fea fowl clamor above and below, 
forming a ftrange profpedt and fingular chorus. 
The place was once defenfible, there having been 
a ditch and draw-bridge on the accclTible fide i 
but now both are deftroyed. 

Above five miles fouth is Shins, the remains of 
the old family caflle, featcd ftrongly on a penin- 
fulated rock ; but demolifhed in 1594, by James 
VI. on the rebellion of the Earl of Huntly. Near 
this place are fome vaft caverns, once filled with 
curious ftaladlical incruftations, but now deftroyed, 
in order to be burnt into lime ; for there is none in 
this country, that ufcful commodity being im- 

I N S C O T L A N D. '^2^ 

ported from the Earl of EIgtn*s works on the Firth 
of Forth. 

Here the (hore begins to grow bold and rocky, 
and indented in a ftrange manner with fmall and 
deep creeks, or rather immenfe and horrible chafms. 
The hmous Bullers of Buchan lie about a mile north SuUert of 
of Bownefs , are a vaft hollow in a rock, projecting Buchan„ 
into the fea, open at top, with a communication to 
the fea through 4 noble natural arch, thro' which 
boats can pafs, and lie fecure in this natural har- 
bour. There is a path round the top, but in 
fome parts too narrow to walk on with fatisfac- 
tion, as the depth is about thirty fathom, with 
water on both fides, being bounded on the north 
and fouth by fmall creeks. 

Near this is a great infulatcd rock, divided by a 
narrow and very deep chafm from the land. This 
rock is pierced through midway between the water 
and the top, and in great florms the v/ates rufii 
through it with vaft noife and impetuofity. On the 
fides, as well as thofe of the adjacent cliffs, breed 
multitudes of Kittiwakes *. The young are a fa- ir^f^aw, 
vorite dilh in North Britain^ being ferved up a 
little before dinner, as a whet for the appetite ; 
but, from the rank fmell and tafte, feem as if they 
were more likely to have a contrary efreft. I was 
told of an honeft gentleman who was fet down for 
the firft time to this kind of whet, as he fuppofed ; 
and after demolifhing half a dozen, with much im- 
patience declared, that he had eaten /^a-, and did 

• Br. ZqqI, illufir, 26. tah, xxiii, 


12^ — A T O U R 

not find himfelf a bit more hungry than befo;e he 
Fifberyoffea On this coaft is a great fiflicry of Sea Dogs *, 
°^^' which begins the laft week of July^ and ends the 

firft in September. The livers are boiled for oil i 
the bodies fplic, dried, and fold to the common 
^ people, who come from great diftances for them. 
There are very fine Turbot taken on this coaft; 
and towards Peterhead^ good filherles of Cod and 
Ling. The Lord of the Manour has 3I. 6s. 8d. 
per annum from every boat, (a fix-man boat) but 
if a new crew lets up, the Lord, by way of encou- 
ragement, finds them a boat. Befides thefe, they 
have little yawls for catching bait at the foot of 
the rocks. Mufcles are alfo much ufcd for bait, 
and many boats loads are brought for that purpofe 
from the mouth of the Tthen. Of late years, a 
very fuccefsfull falmon fifliery has been fct up in 
the fandy bays below Slains. This is performed by 
long nets, carried out to fea by boats, a great com- 
pafs taken, and then hawled on (hore. It is re- 
marked, thefe fifh fwim againft the wind, and arc 
much better tafted than thofe taken in frelh waters. 
Mofl of the labor on fhore is performed here by 
the women : they will carry as much fifh as two 
men can lift on their fhoiilders, and when they have 
fold their cargo and emptied their bafl<.et, will re- 
place part of it with ftones : they go fixteen miles 
to fell or barter their fifh i are very fond of finery, 
and will load their fingers with trumpery rings, 
when they want both fhoes and ftockings. The 

• The picked Dog, Br. Zcol. III. -j-j, 


I N S C O T L A N D. ' *27 

fleet was the laft war fupplied with great numbers 
of men froni this and other parts oi Scotland, as 
well as the army : I think near 70,000 engaged in 
the general caufe, and affifted in carrying our glory 
through all parts of the globe : of the former, 
numbers returned •, of the latter, very few. 

The houfes in this country are built with clay, Houfes; 
tempered in the fame manner as the IJraelites made 
their bricks in the land of yEgypt : after dreffing 
the clay, and working it up with water, the la- 
borers place on it a large ftratum of flraw, which 
is trampled into it and made fmall by horfes : then 
more is added, till it arrives at a proper confiftency, 
when it is ufed as a plaifter, and makes the houfes 
very warm. The roofs are farked, i. e. covered 
with inch-and-half deal, fawed into three planks, 
and then nailed to the joifts, on which the flates are 
pinned. * 

The land profpefl is extremely unpleafant ; for 
no trees will grow here, in fpitc of all the pains 
that have been taken : not but in former times it 
mud have been well v/ooded, as is evident from the 
numbers of trees dug up in all the bogs. The 
fame nakednefs prevales over great part of this 
coaft, even far beyond Bamff, except iti a fcW warm 

The corn of this tratt is oats and barley ; of the 
laft I have feen very good clofe to the edges of the 
cliffs. Rents are paid here partly in calh, partly 
in kind •, the laft is commonly fold to a contra(5lor. 
The land here being poor, is fet cheap. The peo- 
ple live hardly : a common food with them is 

128 A T O U R 

fozvettS) the huflvs of oats, fifft put into a barrdl 
with water, in order to grow four, and then boiled. 
Aug. II. Croflcd the country wwa.rds Bawff^ over oat- 

lands, a coarfe fort of downs, and feveral black 
heathy moors, without a fingle tree fornumbers of 

Craig/lon miles. See Crnivflon caftlc, a good houfe, once 
Callle. . 'CD -> 

defenfiblc, featcd in a fnug bottom, where the plan- 
tations thrive greatly. Saw here a head of David 
Lejlyy by Jamefon^ and another of Sir Alexander 
Frazier^ by the fame. Pafled by a fmall ruined 
caflle, at a place called Cajlletony feated on a round 
hill in a deep glen, and fcarce accefllble. Ford the 
Devrofty a fine river, over which had been a beau- 
tiful! bridge, now wafhed away by the fioods. 
Sawf. Bamff, pleafantly feated oh the fide of a hill ; 

has feveral ftreets i but that with the town-houfe in 
itj adorned with a new fpire, is very handfome : 
the harbor is very bad, as the entrance at the 
mouth of the Bevron is very uncertain, being ofteh 
flopped by the fiiifting of the fands, which ar6 
continually changing, in great ftorms -, the pier is 
therefore placed on the outfide. ' Much falmon is 
exported from hence. About ^roop head, fom^ 
kelp is made ; and the adventurers pay the Lord of 
the Manour 50 1. -per ajin. for the liberty of colled- 
ing the materials. 

The Earl of Finlater has a houfe, prettily feated 
on an eminence, near the town, with fome planta- 
tions of flirubs and fmall trees, which have a good 
effeft in fo bare a country. The profpc6l is very 
fine, commanding the rich meadows near the town, 
2 Dcwn 

I N S C O T L A N D. 129 

D^ww afmall but well-built nfhing-town, the great 
promontory of Trcop-head, and to the north the 
hills of Rofsjhire, Sutherlfjid^ and Cathnefs. 

The houfe once belonged to the Sharps •, and the 
violent archbilhop of that name was born here. In 
one of the apartments is a pidure of Jamefon by 
himfelf, fitting in his painting-room, drefled like 
Rubens^ and with his hat on, and his pallet in his 
hand. On the walls are reprefented hung up, the 
pictures o{ Charles I. and his Queen ; a head of his 
own wife ; another head ; tv/o fea views, and Per- 
feus and Andromeda, the produdions of his various 

D/(^ Houfe, a vaft pile of building, a little way DuffUc^k, 
from the town, is a fquare, with a fquare tower at 
each end -, the front richly ornamented with carv- 
ing, but, for want of wings, has a naked look : 
the rooms within are very fmall, and by no mean^ 
anfwer the magnificence of the cafe. 

In the apartments are thefe pidures : Frances, 
Dutchefs of Richmond, full length, in black, with 
a little pifture at her breaft. ^t. ^y, 1633, by 
Vandyk. Fine heads o^ Charles I. and his Queen. 
A head of a Duff, with fhort grey hair, hy Alexander 
of Corfenday. Near the houfe is a fhrubbery, with 
a walk two miles long leading to the river. 

About two miles weft of Bamff, not far from the Aug. 12. 
fea, is a great ftratum of fand and fliells, ufed with 
fuccefs as a manure. Sea tang is alfo much ufed 
for corrl-lands, fometimes by itfelf, fometimes 
mixed with earth, and left to rot: it is befides often 
laid frelh on grafs, and anfv/ers very well. Pafied 

K by 

130 A T O U R 

by thehonfc oi Boyne^ a ruined caftle, on the edge 
of a deep glen, tilled with Ibnie good afh and 

Near Portfoy^ a fmall town, is a large llratum of 
marble, a coarfe fort of Verd di Ccrjica^ ufed in 
fome houfes for chimney-pieces. Reach 
CuUfnllovi^e. Ciillen Iloufe, feated at the edge of a deep glen 
full of very large trees, which being out of the 
reach of the fca winds, profper greatly. This fpot 
is very prettily laid out in walks, and over the en- 
trance is a magnificent arch fixty feet high, and 
eighty-two in width. The houfe is large, but ir- 
regular. The mod remarkable pictures are, a full 
length of "James VI. by Myiens : at the time of the 
revolution, the mob had taken it out oi Holyrood 
Houfe, and were kicking it about the ftreets, when 
the Chancellor, the Earl of FiuLiler, happening to 
pafs by, redeemed it out of their hands. A por- 
trait ot James Duke of ihmiltony beheaded 1649, 
in a large black cloak, with a fVir, by Vdndyk. A 
half-length of his brother, by the fame, killed at 
the battle o^ PVorceJlcr. IViUinm Duke of llamilton^ 
prefident of the revolution parlcment, by KnelUr, 
Old Lord Bamff, aged 90, wkh a long white fquare 
beard, who is laid to have incurred the cenfure of 
the church, at that age, for his galantrics *. 


* Amonf; otherph5\uies of pcrfons of merit, that of the ad. 
mirablc C'ichton mull not lie civcrlooked. I w;is iuformed, 
that there is one of that extraordinary perfon in the poflcflion 
of Alrxandtr Motri/on, Efij; of Va^iiic, in the county of B^Tm/f; 
it is in the fame apartment with lome oi JamrjoH^^, but fecinj 
done by a fupcrior hand : came into Mr. Mtjrri/on'% poflcflion 
from the faouly of O/V/^/t «, Wi*i.Q\XTi\.Frendraught, chief of 


I N S C O T L A N D. 131 

The country round Cullen has all the marks of 
improvement, owing to the * indefatigable pains 
of the late noble owner, in advancing the art of 
agriculture and planting, and every orhbr ulefull 
bufincfs, as far as the nature of the foil would ad- 
mit. His fuccefs in the firft was very great j the 
crops of beans, peas, oats, and barley, v/ere ex- 
cellent -, the wheat very good, but, through the 
fault of the climate, will not ripen till it is late, 
the harveft in thefe parts being in Ocfober. The 
plantations are very extenfive, and reach to the top 
of the hill of Knock •, but the farther they extend 
from the bottoms the worle they luccecd. 

The town of Cullen is mean •, yet has about a 
hundred looms in it, there being a ilouriOiing ma- 
nufadure of linnen and thread, of which near fifty 
thoufand pounds worth is annually made. 

Near this town ih^ D \.\kt oi Cumberland^ after his 
march from Bamff-, joined the reit of his forces 
from Straithbogie^ and encamped at Cullen. 

In a fmali fandy bay are three lofty fpiring rocks, 
formed of flinty maflcs, cemented together very 
diiferently from any fbratum in the country. Thcfc 
are called the three Kings of Cullen. A little far- 
ther is another vafi rock, pierced quite through, 
formed of pebbly concretions lodged in clay, which 
had fubfiided in thick but regular layers. 

the name, to whom Cnchion probably fent it from Tialy, where 
he fpent the lafl years of his (hort, bvit glorio.Js life. 

* His Lordlliip colled^d together near 2000 fjuls, to hi? 
new town at Keith, hyfeui/ig; i.e. giving in perpetiuty, on. • 
payment of a flight ackuowlegemeiit, Ian i fjfficvent to build 
a houfe on, with gardens and back-yard. 

K 2 Palled 

132 A T O U R 

Ave. aj. PafTed through a fine open country, full of gen- 

tle rifings, and rich in corn, with a few clumps of 
trees Iparingly fcattered over it. Great ufe is made 

Stone marie, hereof (tone mark, a gritty indurated marie, found 
in vaft ftrata, dipping pretty much : it is of dif- 
ferent colors, blue, pale brown, and reddifh ; is 
cut out of the quarry, and laid very thick on the 
ground In lumps, but will not wholly diflblve un- 
der three or four years. In the quarry is a great 
deal of fparry matter, which is laid apart, and 
burnt for lime. Arrive at 

Co/luQordon, CajtU-Gordcn^ a large old houfe, the feat of the 
Duke of Gordon^ lyitig in a low wet country, near 
lome large well-grown woods, and a confiderable 
one of great hollies. It was founded by George 
fecond Earl of Huntly ; and was originally called 
the caftle of the bog of Gight. The principal pic- 
tures in Cajlle-Gordon are, the firft Marquifs of 
Iluntly. Fourth Marquifs of Huntly^ beheaded by 
the Covenanters. His fon, the gallant Lord Gordon, 
Montrofc's friend, killed at the battle oi Auldfort. 
T^ord Lewis Gordon^ a lefs generous warrior j the 
plague * of the people of Murrayy (then the feat of 
the Covenanters) whofe character, with that of the 
brave Mcntrcfey is well contrafted in thefe old 
lines : 

Jf yc with Mcntro/c gae, ye'l get fie and wae enough ; 

If ye with Lord Lenvls gae, ye'l get rob and rave enough. 

• Whence this proverb, 

* The Guil, the Cor.Ion, and the Hooded Craw, 
< Were the three worft things Murray ever faw. 
Cutl is a weed that infdls corn. It was from the caftle of 
Rcti-es, on the Sp:j-, that Lord Levjis made his plundering cx- 
curfions into Murntv. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 13 

• The head of the fccond Countefs of Huntl)\ 
daughter of James I. A fine fmall portrait of the 
Able d'Jubignef fitting in his ftudy. A very fine 
head of St. John receiving the revelation ; a beau- 
tifull expreflion of atte'ntion and devotion. 

The Duke oi Gordon ftill keeps up the diverfion Falconry, 
of falconry, and had feveral fine Hawks, of the 
Peregrine and gentle Falcon fpecies, which breed 
in the rocks of Glenmore. I faw alfo here a true 
Highland gre-hound, which is now become very 
fcarce : it was of a very large fize, ftrong, deep 
chefted, and covered with very long and rougii hair. 
This kind was in great vogue in former days, and 
wkdt in vaft numbers, at the magnificent ftag-chafes, 
by the powerful! Chieftains. 

The Spey is a dangerous neighbor to Cajlle- The ^pry. 
Gordon^ a large and furious river, overflowing very 
frequently in a dreadful! manner, as appears by its 
ravages far beyond its banks. The bed of the 
river is wide and full of gravel, and the channel 
very fhifting. 

The Duke of Cumberland pafled this water at 
Beily church, near this place, when the channel 
was fo deep as to take an officer, from whom I had 
the relation, and who v/as fix feet four inches high, 
up to the bread. The banks are very high, and 
fleep j fo that, had not the Rebels been provi- 
dentially fo infatuated as to neglect oppofition, the 
paflTage muft have been attended with confiderable 

The faimon filhery on this river is very great : 
about feventeen hundred barrels full are caught in 

K 3 . the 

1S4 A T O U R 

the feafon, and the (hore is rented for about i2Col. 
per annum. 

AvQ f i. Pafi'ed through Forchahus, a wretched town, clofc 

to the cafHe. CrofTed the Spey in a boat, and 
landed in the county oi Murray. 

The pealants houles, which, throughout the fliirc 
of Bamffy were very decent, were now become very 
mlferable, being entirely tnade of turf : the country 
partly moor, partly cultivated, but in a very flo- 
venly manner. 

El^ln, Dine at Elgin *, a good town, with many of 

the houfes built over piazzas •, excepting its great 
cattle fairs, has little trade ; but is remarkable for 
its ecclefiaftical antiquities. The cathedral -f- had 
bfcn a magnificent pile, but is now in ruins. Jon- 
fion^ in his encomia urbium^ Celebrates the beauty of 
Elgin^ and laments the fate of this noble building: 
u^rcihus heroum nitidis urbs cingitur^ intus 

Plebeii radiant., nchiliumque Lares : 
Omnia dcUHanty ceteris fed rudera lempli 
Dum fpe^as^ lachrymis^ Scotia tinge genas. 
The weft door is very elegant, and richly orna- 
mented. The choir very beautifull, and has a fine 
and light gallery running round it -, and at theeaft 
end are tv.'o rows of narrow windows in an excel- 
lent gotliic tafte. Ihe chapter- houfc is an oflagon, 

• Cehice Belle ville. 

^ Founded by 'John, fecond fon of the hoofe Ctf Junes, and 
Bifhop oi Murray, 1406 ; of vvhofc epitaph I mtt with in a 
curious M. S hiHory of the li:nes family this fra;:ment. 

H:c jacet in Xio pater et Dominus, Dcminus Johannes de 
Innes bvjui Eccleji,r epijccfus — j^i hoc notabiU opus incepit 
4t ptr Jepttnnium ediJica'Vit, 


I N S C O T L A N D. J35 

the roof fupported by a fine fingle column, with 
neat carvings of coats of arms round the capital. 
There is ftill a great tower on each fide of this cathe- 
dral ; but that in the centre, with the fpire and whole 
roof, are fallen in, and form moft awefull frag- 
ments, mixed with the battered monuments of 
Knights and Prelates. Boethius fays that Duncan^ 
who was killed by Macbeth at Invernefs^ lies buried 
here. Numbers of modern tomb-ftones alfo crowd 
the place ^ a proof how difficult it is to eradicate 
the opinion of local fanflity, even in a religion that 
afftifts to defpife it. 

About a mile from hence is the caftle Qi Spinle; SpinU. 
a large fquare tower, and a vaft quantity of other 
ruined buildings, flill remain, which fnews its an- 
tient magnificence whilfi the refidenceof the Bifhops 
ot Murray : the lake of Spinie almoft wafiies the 
walls j is about five miles long, and half a mile 
broad, featcd in a flat country. During winter, 
great numbers of v/ild fwans migrate hither j and 
I have been told, that fome have bred here. Boe- 
thius * fays they refort here for the fake of a cer- 
tain herb called after their name. 

Between this and Elgin is a ruined chapel, called 
Mciifon dieu. Near it is a large gravelly cliff^, from 
whence is a beautifull view of the town, cathedral, 
a round hill with the remains of a caftle, and be- 
neath is the gentle ftream of the Lojfiey the Loxia 
of Ptolemy. 

Three miles fouth is the Abby o£ Plufc^irdin, in piufcairdin 
a moil fequeftred place j a beautifull ruin, the ^'^'^X- 
* Scotorum Regni defer, ix, 

K 4 arches 

1^6 A T O U R 

arches elegant, the pillars well turned, and the 
capitals rich *. 

Crofs the Lojfte^ ride along the edge of a vale, 
which has a ftrange mixture of good corn and black 
turberies : on the road-fide is a mill-ftone quarry. 

Arrive in the rich plain oi Murray, fertile in 
corn ; and the upper parts of the country produce 
great numbers of cattle. The view of the Firth of 
Murroy^ v/ith a full profpedof the high mountains 
oi RcfsJIjire and Sutherland, and the magnificent en- 
trance into the bay oi Cromartie between two lofty 
hills, form a fine piece of fcenery. 
^iMlo/shhhy, Turn about half a mile out of the road to the 
north, to fee Kinlofs Abby+, the burying-place of 
many a Scottijh monarch. The Prior's chamber, 
two femicircular arches, the pillars, the couples of 
feveral of the roofs, afford fpecimens of the moft 
beautifull gothic architefture in all the elegance 
of fimplicity, without any of its fantaftic ornaments. 
Near the abby is an orchard of apple and pear 
I trees, at left coeval with the laft Monks j numbers 

lie proftrate ; their venerable branches fecm to have 
taken frelh roots, and were loaden with fruit, be- 
yond what could be expeded from their antique 
Great Near Forres, on the road-fide, is a vaft column, 

column. three feet ten inches broad, and one foot three inches 

thick : the height above ground is twenty-three 
feet ; below, as is faid, twelve or fifteen. On one 
fide are numbers of rude figures of animals and 

• As 1 was informed, for I did not fee this celebrated abby. 
•j- Founded about 1124, by Davitil. 



armed men, with colors flying : fomc of the men 
feemed bound like captives. On the oppofite fide 
was a crofs, included in a circle, and raifed a little 
above the furface of the (tone. At the foot of the 
crofs are two gigantic figures, and on one of the 
fides is feme elegant fret-work. 

This is called King Suend's ftone ; and feems to 
be, as Mr. Gordon * conjedlures, erefted by the 
Scots, in memory of the final retreat of the Daries : 
it is evidently not Dafiijh, as fome have afTerted ; 
the crofs difproves the opinion, for that nation had 
not then received the light of chriftianity. 

On a moor not far from Forres, Boetbius, and 
Shake/pear from him, places the rencountre of MaC' 
heth and the three wayward fillers, or witches. It 
was my fortune to meet with but one, which was 
fomewhere in the lall county : fhe was of a fpecies 
far more dangerous than thefe, but neither withered^ 
fior wild in her attire, but fo fair. 

She look'd not like an Inhabitant o'th' Earth ! 

Boethius tells his ftory adm.irably well : but en- 
tirely confines it to the predictions of the three fa- 
tal fifters, which Shakefpear has fo finely copied in 
the IVth fceneof the ift a6l. The Poet, in confor- 
mity to the belief of the times, calls them witches-, 
jn fa6t they were the Fates, the Valkyrie -}- of the nor- 
thern nations, Gunnay Nota^ and Skulda, the hand- 

• It in, Ssptenir. 158. 

f From Walur, fignifying the flaughter in battle, and Kyria 
to obtain by choice : for their oiRce, befides feleiting out thofe 
that were to die in battle, was to conduct them to Valhallay 
the Paradife of the brave, the Hall of Odin. Their numbers 
are different, ibme make them three, others twelve, others 

fourteen j 

i^B A T O II R 

maids of Odin^ the ardic Mnrs^ and ftyled the 
Chufers of the Jlain^ it being their office in battle to 
mark thofe devoted to dea;]i. • 

We the reins to flaughter give. 
Oars to kill, and ours to fpare : 
Sflite of danger he (hall live, 
(Weave the crimfon web of war) *. 

Bocthius^ fenfihle of this, calls them Pnrc^ : and 
Shake/pear introduces them juft going upon their 

When flial] we three meet again 
In thunder, lightning, or in rain ? 
When the hurly-burly* s donCf 
When the battle's loft or <woh. 

But all the fine incantations that fucceed, are bor- 
rowed from the fancifull Diableries of old times, 
but fublimed ; and purged from all that is ridicu- 
lous by the creative genius of the inimitable Poet, 
of whom Dry den fo juftly fpeaks : 

But Shakespear's magic cou'd not copied be^ 
Within that circle none durfi imalk but he. 

We laugh at the magic of others ; but Shake* 
/pearls makes us tremble. The windy caps f of King 

fourteen; are defcribed as being very heautifull, covered with 
tl<e fcathcrt of fwans, and armed with fpear and helmet. 
f ide Bartholinus de lauf. contempt, fwtrtui. 553, 554, & not<f 
•tel, Srephanii in Sax. Cramm. 88. & I'orfajus. p. 36- 

• Gray. 

■\ King Eric was a great ma!gician, who by turning his cap, 
caulcu the wind 10 blow according ly his mind. 

4 Eric^ 


Eric, and the vendible knots of wind otWiftFinlnnJ* 
magicians appear infinitely ridiculous; but when 
our Poet drefTes up the fame idea, how horrible 
is the dorm he creates ! 

Though you untie the wines, and let them fight 

/\gainft the churches ; though the yefly waves 

Confound and fwallow navigation up ; 

Though blaced corn be lodged and trees blown down j 

Though caftles topple on their warders' heads ; 

Though palaces and pyramids do flope 

Their heads to their foundations ; though the tieafure 

Of nature's germins tumble nil together. 

Even till deftruftion ficken, anfwer rae 

To what I aflc. 

Lay at Forres^ a very neat town, feated under Forres. 
fome little hills, which are prettily divided. In the 
great flreet is the town houfe with a handfome <^u- 
polo, and at the end is an arched gateway, which 
has a good efFe6t. On a hill weft of the town are 
the poor remains of the caftle, from whence is a 
fine view of a rich country, interfperfed with groves^ 
the bay of Fin dr en, a fine bafon, almolt round, 
with a narrow ftrait into it from the fea, and a me- 
lancholy profped of the parifli of the fame name, 
now nearly overwhelmed with fand. This ftrange Inundation 
inundation is ftiU in motion, but moftly in the time 
of a weft wind : it moves along the furface with an 
even progreffion, but is ftopped by water, after 

* Solebant aliquando Finni, negotiatoribus in eorum litto- 
ribus contraria ventorum tcmpeftace impeditis, ventum ve- 
nalem exhibere, mercedeque oblata, tres nodos magicos msn 
caflioticos Icro conftridos eifdem reddere, eo fervato modera- 
mine ut ubi primum dijjoluer'mt, ventos haberent placidos ; 
ubi alterum, vehementiores ; at ubi tertium laxa'verint ita fas- 
vas tempeltates fe palTuros, &c. O/aajil/a^aajde gent. Sept. 97. 


of fand. 


«0 . A T O U R 

which it forms little hills : its motion is (o quick, 
that a gentleman afllired me he had feen an apple- 
tree fc covered with it, in one feafon, as to leave 
only a few of the green leaves of the upper 
branches appear above the furface. An eftate of 
about 300 1. per ann. has been thus overwhelmed j 
and it is not long fince the chimnies of the prin- 
cipal houfes were to be feen : it began about eighty- 
years ago,occafioned by the cutting down the trees 
and pulling up the bent, or ftarwort, which gave 
occalion at lall to the a6t 15th G. II. to prevent its 
farther ravages, by prohibiting the dcftruiflion of 
that plant. 
Aug, 15. Crofs the /vWrow ; land near a friable rock of 

whitifh ftonc, much tinged with green, an indica- 
tion of copper. I'he ftone is burnt for lime. From 
an adjacent eminence is a pi(5l:urerque view of 
Forres. About three miles farther is 'Tarnaway 
"csiiii. Caflle, the antient feat of the Earls oi Murray. 
The hall, called Randolph's Hall, from its founder 
Earl Randolph^ one of the great fupporters of 
Robert Bruce^ is timbered at top like Wejlmhijier 
Hall: its dimenfions are 79 feet by '^^■, 10 inches, 
and fcems a fit refort for Barons and their vaflals. 
In the rooms are fome good heads : one of a 
youth, with a ribband of fome order hanging 
from his neck. One unknown, with a black body 
to his vefl, and brown fleeves. The Fair, or 
Benny Earl of Murray^ as he is commonly called, 
who was murdered, as fuppofed, on account of 
a jealoufy James VI. entertained of a pafTion the 
Qiieen had for him ; at left fuch was the popular 




•opinion, as appears from the old ballad on the 
occafion : 

He was a braw Gallant, 

And he played at the Gluve * ; 
And the bonny Earl of Murray^ 

Oh ! he was the Queene's Love. 

There are befides, the heads of his lady and daugh- 
ter ; all on wood, except that of the Earl. To 
the fouth-fide of the caftle are large birch woods, 
abounding with Stags and Roes. 

Continued my journey weft to Atddearne. Am JuUeame; 
now arrived again in the country where the Erfe 
fervice is performed. Juft beneath the church is 
the place where Montrofe obtained a fignal vidlory 
over the Covenanters, many of whofe bodies lie in 
the church, with an infcription, importing, accord- 
ing to the cant of the time, that they died fighting 
for their religion and their king. I was told this 
anecdote of that hero : That he always carried with 
him a Ccefar^s Commentaries, on whofe margins 
were written, in Montrofe'% own hand, the generous 
fentiments of his heart, verfes out of the Italian 
Poets, exprefling contempt of every thing but 
glory. ^ 

Have a diftant view of Nairn^ a fmall town near 
the fea. Ride through a rich corn country, mixed 

* For Glaive y an old word for a fword. 

* Then furth he drew his trufty Glaivey 

Quhyle thoufands all arround, 

Drawn frae their fheaths glanft in the fun. 

And Iciud the Bougills found.' 



r4-2 A T O U R 

vith deep and bl.Kk turberies, which ilicw the ori- 
ginal Hate of the land, before the recent introduc- 
tion of the improved method of agriculture. Reach 

€aiuJor. CoJder Caftle, or Ca'-jodor, as Sbakefpear calls it, 

once the property cf its tbatics. The antient part 
is a great fquare tower ; but there is a large and 
m'')re .Tiodern building annexed, with a draw- 

All the honfes in thcfc parts are caftles, or at 
left defenfible •, for, till the year 1745, the High- 
landers mavk' their inroads, and drove away thecattle 
of their dcfencelrfs neighbors. There arc faid to 
exift fome very old marriage articles of the daughter 
of a chicftiin, in v/hich the father promifcs for her 
portion, 200 Scots marks, and the half of a Af/- 
chaclmas moon, i, e. half the plunder, when the 
nights srewdark enough to make their excurfions. 

Rode into the woods of Calder^ in which were 
very fine birch trees and alders, fome oak, great 
broom, and juniper, which gave fhelter to the Roes. 
Deep rocky glens, darkened with trees, bound 
each fide of the wood: one has a great torrent roar- 
ing at its diftant bottom, called the Brook oi Ach- 
vem : it well merits the name of that of Acheron^ 
being a mofl: fit fcene for witches to celebrate their 
noflurnal rites in. 

Obferved on a pillar of the door of C^/J<?r church, 

A joug. zjougt i. e. an iron yoke, or ring, fattened to a 

chain j which was, in former times, put round the 
necks of delinquents againft the rules of the church, 
who were Ic-.t there expofed to Ihame during the 
lime of divine fervice : but thefe penalties are now 


I N ^ C O T L A N D. ,43 


happily abolifhed. The clergy of Scotland^ the ScctchzXzriy. 
moil decent and confiftent in their condu(fi: of any 
fee of men I ever met with of their order, are at 
prefent much chnr.ged from the furious, illiterate, 
and enthufiaftic teachers of the old times, and 
have taken up the mild method of perfuafion, in- 
ftead of the cruel difcipline of corporal punifh- 
ments. Science almoft univerfally flourilhes among 
them i and their difcourfe is not lefs Improving 
than the table they entertain the (Iranger at is 
decent and hofpitable./ Few, very few of them, 
permit the bewitchery of difilpation to lay hold of 
them, notwithftanding they allow all the innocer.t 
pleafures of others, which, though not criminal in 
the layman, they know, muil bring the taint of 
levity on the churchman. They never fink their 
characters by midnight brawls, by mixing with the 
gaming world, either in cards, cocking, or horfe- 
races, but preferve, with a narrow incorfie, a dig- 
nity too often loft among their brethren fouth of 
the T^weed *. 

The Scotch livings are from 40]. per ann. to 1531. ^a.'.Aliving^ 
per ann. a decent houfe is built for the miniiler on 
the glebe, and about fix acres of land annexed. The 
church allows no curate, except in cafe of fickncfs 

• To the WORTHY ! f 

But if in thefe days fuch apoftafes appear, 
(And fuch I am told are found there and here) 
O pardon, dear friends, a well-meaning zeal 
Too unguardedly telling the fcandal I feel ; 
It touches not ye, let the galled jades winch : 
Sou^d in morals and doftrine, ye never fhould flinch, 
fcc. &c. &c. ■ ^ 

144 A T O U R 

or age, when one, under the title of helper, is ap- 
pointed ; or, where the livings are very extenfive, a 
miflionary or afiiftant is allotted -, but fine-cures, or 
fine-cured preferments, never difgrace the church 
of our fiRer kingdom. The widows and children 
of thofe who die in poor circumfhances are of late 
provided for out of a fund eftablifhed by two afts, 
17th and 2 2d G. II. *. 

Crofs the Nairn ; the bridge large, but the 
-flream inconfiderable, except in floods. On the 
weft is Kilraz'och Caftle, and that of Dalcrofs. Keep 
due north, along the military road from Perth', pafs 
'along a narrow low piece of land, projefling far 
into the Firt^^ called Arderfter^ forming a ftrait 
fcarce a mile over, between this county and that 

Fort George, of Cromartie -f. At the end of this point is Fort 
George, a fmali but ftrong and regular fortrefs, 
built fince 1745, as a place d'armes : it is kept in 
excellent order ; but, by reafon of the happy 
change of the times, feemed almoft deferred : the 
barracks are very handfome, and form feveral re- 
gular and good ftreets. 

Lay at CambeltowKy a place confifting of num- 
bers of very mean houfes, owing its rife and fup- 
port to the neighboring fort. 

Aug. 16. Pafied over CuUoden Moor, the place that North 

Britain owes itsprefcnt profperityto, by the vi(5loTy 
of April 16, 1746. On the fide of the Moor are the 
great plantations of CuUoden Houfe, the feat of the 

• An account of the government of tht church of Scotland 
was communicated to mc by the Reverend Mr. Brodie, the late 
worthy miniftcr of Calder. Vide Appendix, N"- I. 

f Between which plies a ferry-boat. 



I N S C O T L A N D. 145 

late Duncan Forbes, a warm and aflive friend to the 
houfe of Hanover, who fpent great fums in its fer- 
vice, and by his influence, and by his perfuafions, 
diverted numbers from joining in rebellion ; at 
length he met with a cool return, for his humane 
but unpolitical attempt to O^eath, after viflory, the 
unfatiated fword. But let a veil be flung over a few 
exccfTcs confequential of a day produdive of fo 
much benefit to the united kingdoms. 

The young adventurer lodged here the evening 
preceding the battle ; diflraded with the avcrfion 
of the common men to difcipline, and the diflfen- 
fions among his officers, even when they were at the 
brink of deftruftion, he feemed incapable of acting, 
could be fcarcely perfuadcd to mount his horfe, 
never came into the aftion, as might have been ex- 
pe(fted from a prince who had his laft fl:ake to play> 
but fled inglorioufly to the old traitor Lovat *, who, 
I was told, did execrate him to the perfon who in- 
formed him that he was approaching as a fugitive ; 
forefeeing his own ruin as the confequence -f. y 


* His Lordfhip was at that time expefting the event of the 
battle, when a perfon came in and informed him, that he faw 
the Prince riding full fpeed, and alone. 

■f- Regard to impartiality obliges me to give the following 
account, very recently communicated to me, relating to the 
Hation of the chief on this important day j and that by an eye- 

The Scotch army was drawn up in a fingle line ; behind, at 
about 500 paces diftance, was a corps de re/cr-ue, with which 
was the Adventurer, a place of feeming lecuricy, fromi 
whence he ifl'ued his orders. His ufual drefs was that of the 
Highlands, but this day he appeared in a brown coat, with ;i 
loofe great coat over it, and an ordinary hat, fuch as country- 
men wear, on hi^ head. Kemote as tliis place was from che 

14^ A T O U R 

The Duke of Cumberland^ v^hcn he found that 
the barges of the licet atcended near the fhore for 
the fatety of his perfon/in cafe of a defeat, imme- 
diately ordered them away, to convince his men of 
the refolution he had taken of cither conquering or 
pcrilhing with them. 

1 he battle was fought contrary to the advice of 
fome of the moft fenfible men in the rebel army^ 
who advifed the retiring into the faHnelfes beyond 
the Nffsj the breaking down the bridge of Inver- 
nefs^ and defending themfelves amidft the moun- 
tains. They pohtically Urged xh^x. England was then 
engaged in bloody v/ars foreign and domeftic, that 
it could at that time ill fpare its troops \ and that 
the government might, from that confideration, be 
induced to grant to the infurgents their lives and 
fortunes, on condition they laid down their arms. 
They were fenfible that their caufe was defperate, 
and that their ally was faithlefs-, yet knew it might 
be long before they could be entirely fubdued -, 
therefore drew hopes from the fad neccfiity of our 
affairs at that feafon : but this rational plan was fu- 
perfeded by the favourite fartion in the army, to 
whofe guidance the unfortunate adventurer had re- 
figned himfelf. 

After defcending from the Moor, got into a well 
cultivated country -, and after riding fome tinie 
under low but pleafant hills,, not far from the fca, 

fpot the trifling a£>ion was, a fervant of Vn was killed by an 
accidental fliot. It is well known how (hort the conflid was : 
and the moment he faw his right wing give way, he fled with 
the utmoA precipitation, and without a flngl^ attendant. 



Inverness, finely feated on a plain, between the Invbrkss?, 
Firth of the lame name and the river Nefs : the 
firft, from the narrow ftrait of Ankrfier, inftantly 
widens into a fine bay, and again as fuddenly con- 
tra6bs oppofite Invernefsy, at the ferry of Kejfcck., the 
pafs into Rofsjlire. The town is large and well 
built, and very populous, being the laft of any note 
in North Briiain. On the north is Oliver's Fort, a 
pentagon ; but only the form remains to be traced 
by the ditches and banks. Near it is a ve^y con- 
fiderable rope manufifture. On an eminence fjuth 
of the town is old Fort Geor^e^ which was taken 
and blown up by the Rebels : it had bren no more 
than a very antienc caille, the place where Boethius 
fays that Duncan was murdered : from thence is a 
mod; charming view cf the Firth, the paflage of 
Kejfock^ the river Nefs, the llrange Ihaped hill of 
Tcrmnin heurich, and various groupes of diflanC 

That fingular Tommin is of an oblong form, 
broad at the bafe, and Hoping on all fides towards 
the top i fo that it looks like a great fhip with its 
keel upwards, hs fides and part of the neicrh- 
boring plains are planted, fo it is both an agreeable 
walk and a fine object. It is pctfedly detached 
from any other hill ; and if it was not for its great 
fize, might pafs * for a work of arc. The view 
from it is fuch, that no traveller will think his labor 
loft, after gaining the fummit. 

At Invernefsy and I believe at other towns in 6"^^?/- 

* Its length at top about 300 yards j I neglefled meafur- 
ing the bale or the height, which are both confiderabk; tiie 
breadth of the top only 20 yards. 

L 2 land^ 

14? A T O U R 

land^ is nn officer, called Dean of the Cuild, who, 
afTided by a council, luperintends the markets, re- 
gulates the price -f- of provifions j and if any houfe 
falls down, and the owner lets it lie in ruins for 
three years, the Dean can abfolutely difpofe of the 
ground to the befl bidder. 

Crofs the Nefs on a bridge of feven arches, above 
which tiie tide flows for about a mile. 

Proceed north •, have a fine view of the Firth, 
which now widens again from Kejfock into a large 
bay fome miles in length. The hills flope down to 
the water-fide, and are finely cultivated ; but the 
diftant profpeft is of rugged mountains of a flu- 
pendous height, as if created as guards to the reft 
of the ifland from the fury of the boifterous north. 

Ride clofe to the water-edge thro* woods of alder, 
pafs near fcveral houfcs of the Fraziers^ and' reach 
Ca/iU Dunie. Caftle Dunie^ the fite of the houfe of their chief- 
tain Lord Lovat. 

The old houfe, which was very mean, was burnt 
down in 1746; but a neat box, the refidencc of 
the hofpitable faflor, is built in its ftcad on a high 
bank well wooded, over the pretty river Bewleyy 
or BeauUeii. The country, for a certain circuit, is 
fertile, well cultivated, and fmiling. The bulk of 
Lord Lovat's ellate was in thefe parts •, the reft, to 
the amount of 500I. per ann. in Straiiherick. He 
was a potent chieftain, and could raife about 1000 

f Ikef, (22 ounccb to the pound) 2d. to 4d. Mutton, 
ati. to id Wal, 3d. to <;d. Pork, 2d. to 3d. CiiickenJ, 
3d. to 4d. a couple. Fowl, ^d. to 6d. apiece. Goofe, izd. 
to i4d. Ducks, IS. a couple Eggs, icven a penny. Sal- 
mon, of which there arc fcveral great fifiierici, id. and id. 
halfpenny per pound, 

men : 



men : but I found his neighbors fpoke as unfa-, 
vorably of him, as his enemies did in the moll 
diftant parts of the kingdom. His property is one 
of the annexed eftates, /. e. fettled unalienably on 
the crown, as all the forfeited fortunes in the High- Forfeited 
lands are: the whole value of which brought in at ^^^^^^s* 
that time about 6000I. per ann. and thole in the 
Lowlands about the fame fum •, lb that the power 
and intereft of a poor twelve thoufand per ann. 
terrified and nearly fubverted the conllitution of 
thefe powerful kingdoms. 

The profits of thefe eftates are lodged in the 
hands of Truftees, who apply their revenue for 
the founding of fchools for the inllruftion of chil- 
dren ia- fpinning ; wheels are given away to poor 
families, and flax-feed to farmers. Some money is 
given in aid of the roads, and towards building 
bridges over the torrents; by which means a ready 
intercourfe is made to parts before inacceflible to 
flrangers *. And in i753> a large fum was fpent 
on 2iX\Utopian proje6t of eftablilhing colonies (on the 
forfeited eftates) of difbanded foldiers and failors : 
comfortable houfes were built for them, land and 
money given, and Tome lent; but thefuccefs by no 
means anfwered the intentions of the proje£lors.^ 

Ford the Bewley, where a falmon fifhery, belong- Aug. 17. 
ing to the Lovat eftate, rents at 120I. per annum. 
The country on this fide the river is called Leornamo- Leomamo-- 
nach, or the Monk's Land, having formerly been 
the property of the Abby of Bewly ; and the oppo- 
fite fide bears the name of Airds^ or the Heights, ylirds. 
' • The faftors, or agents of thefe eftates, are alfo allowed 
all the money they expend in planting. 


Pafs by fome excellent farms, well enclofcd, im- 
proved, and planted; the land produces wheat and 
other corn. Much cattle are bred in thefe parts, 
and there are feveral linnen manut'acflures. 
Caftle^rtf4«. Ford the Ccfis.n to Caftle Brann, the feat of Lord 
Fortrcfe\ a good houfe, pleafantly fituated on tiie 
fide of a hill, commands a view of a large plain, 
and to the well a wild profpefl of broken and lofty 

There is here a fine full length of Mary Stuart, 
with this infcription, Maria D. G. Scctia piijfima 
reprta. Francise Dctaria. Aimo Mtatis Rcgrd 38. 
1580. Her drefs is black, with a ruff, cap, hand- 
kerchief, and a white veil down to the ground, 
beads and prayer-book, and a crofs hanging; horii 
her neck •, her hair dark brown, her face handlbme, 
and confidering the difference of years, lb much 
refembling her portrait by Zucchero^ in Chf/icick 
Houfe, as to leave little doubt as to the originality 
of the laft. 

A fmall half-length on wood of He>jry Darn(y, 
infcribed Henncus Stuardtts Dominus D^rnly, JEu 
IX. M.D.LV. drcfild in black, with a fword; it 
js the figure of a pretty boy. 

A fine portrait of Cardinal Richlieu. General 
Monk^ in a buff coat. Head of Sir George Mac- 
ketifie. The Farl of Seaforth, called, from his fize, 
]Cenneth More. Dutchefs oi' Bejufcrt, daughter of 
the Marquifs of Pozvis, Earl of Cajilcmaine, admi- 
ral in the time of Cpcirles II. 

Near the houfe are fome very fine oaks nnd 

horfc-chefnuts : in the garden, Turky apricots, 

orange nc<5larincs, and a fmall foft peach, ripe •, 

4 other 

I N S C O T L A N D. 151 

other peaches, nedlarines, and green gages, far 
from ripe. 

Pals through Dirigivall^ a fmall town, thecapital Dingiuall. 
of RofsJIjire, fituaced near the head of the Firth of 
Cromartie : an antient crofs, and an obeHfic over 
the burying-place of the Eails of Cromartie*s fa- 
mily, were all I faw remarkable in it. \ 

Ride along a very good road cut on the fide of a 
hill with the country very well cultivated above 
and below, with feveral fmall woods interfperfed 
near the water's edge. There is a fine view of al- 
moft the whole bay, the moft capacious and fecure Firth of Cr#. 
of any in Great Britain ; its whole navy might lie *"^^'^^'- 
there wii;h eafe, and (hips of two hundred tuns may 
fail up above two-thirds of its length, which ex- 
tends thirty miles, from the Suiters * of Cromartie 
to a fmall diftancc beyond Dingwall : the entrance 
is narrow •, the proje6ling hills defend this fine bay 
from all winds ^ fo it juftly me/its the name given 
it of Partus falutis. 

FouLES, the feat of Sir Henry Monro^ lies about Foulis, 
a mile from the Firth^ near vaft plantations on the 
flats, as well as on the hills. Thofe on the hills 
are fix miles in length, and in a very flourifhing 
Hate. On the back of thefe are extenfive vallies full 
of oats, bounded by mountains, which here, as 
well as in the Highlands in general, run from eaft . 
to weft. Sir Henry holds a foreft from the crown by 
a very whimfical tenure, that of delivering a fnow- Singular 
ball on any day of the year that it is demanded j 

• Suiters, c\r Shooters, two hills that form its entrance, pro- 
jeding conliderably'into die waiei. 

I. 4 and 


^p2 A T O U R 

?nd he feems to be in no danger of forfeiting his 
right by failure of the qiiit-renr, for fnow lies in 
form of a glaciere in the chafms of Benwezvijht a 
neighboring mountain, throughout the year. 
Ap-G. 1 8. Continue my journey along the low country, 
which is rich and well cultivated. 

Pa's near Invergorden *, a handfomehoufe, amidft 
fine p^nrp.dons. Near it is the narroweft part of 
the Firth, and a ferry into the (hire of Cromarty, 
row a country almoft deilitute of trees; yet, in the 
time of James V. was covered with timber, and 
over-run with wolves -f-. 
Ballin^gouan. Near the lummit of the hill, between the Firths 
of Cromartie and Dcrnccb, is BallinagouaUy the feat 
of a gentleman, who has mod fuccefsfully converted 
his fword into a plough-lhare ; who, after a feries 
of difmterefted fervices to his country, by clearing 
thefeas of privateers, the moll unprofitable of cap- 
tures, has applied himfelf to arts not lefsdeferving 
of its thanks. He is the bed farmer and the 
greatefl: planter in the country : his wheat and his 
turneps (hew the one, his plantations of a million 
of pines each year the other t. It was with great 


• At Culracn, three miles from this place, is found, two 
feet beneath the furface, a ftratum of white foapy marie 
filled with ihclls, and is much ufed as a manure. 

f Thefe animals have b. en lonj; extinft in North Brifain, 
rotwithflanding M. //e Bujcn a/l.-rts the contrary. There 
are many antitnt laws for iheir extirpation : that of Jamts I. 
farlem. 7. is the moil remarkable: " I'he Schireffs& Barons 
fold hunt the wrlf four or ^hrie tjme» in the Zcar, betwixt 
5t. Maris day & Latnbei, qiihich is the time of their quhelpes, 
& all tcncntj fall rife with them under paine of ane wad- 

X Pine, or Scotch fir- feed, as il is called, (^lls from four to 


I N S C O T L A N D. '»i3 

fatisfafbion that I obferved charafters of this kind 
very frequent in North Britain ; for during the in- 
terval of peace, every officer pofTefTed of any pa- 
trimony was fond of retiring to it, aflumed the far- 
mer without flinging ofi^ the gentleman, enjoyed 
rural quiet ; yet ready to undergo the fatigues of 
war the moment his country clamed his fervices. 

About two miles below Ballinagouan is a melan- 
choly inftance of a reverfe of conduft : the ruins 
of New 'Tarhaty once the magnificent feat of an AWu ^rurlat, 
unhappy nobleman, who plunged into a moft un- 
gratefull rebellion, deftruftive to himfelf and fa- 
mily. The tenants, who feem to inhabit it gratis^ 
are forced to fheker themfelves from the weather 
in the very loweft apartments, while fwallows make 
their nells in the bold ftucco of fome of the upper. 

While I was in this county, I heard a Angular 
but well-attefted relation of a woman difordered in 
her health, who failed for a fupernatural fpace of 
time ; but the length of the narrative obliges me 
^o fling it into the Appendix *. 

Ride along a tedious black moor to7W/», a fmall 

town on the Firth of Dornoch ; diftinguilhed for 

nothing but its large fquare tower, decorated with 

five fmall fpires. The place appeared very gay 

at this time -, for all the gaudy finery of a little 

fair was difplayed in the Ihew of hard ware, 

painted linnens, and ribbanids. Kept along the 

fix (hillings per pound. Rents are payed here in kind : the 
landlord either contrafts to fupply the forts with the produce 
of the land, or fells it to the merchant, who comes for it. 
The price of labor is 6d. per day to the men, 3a. to the 


• No, II. 


154 ■ A T O U R 

fliore, for about two miles, through an open 
corn country, and crofTing the great ferry, in 
breadth near two miles, thro* a rapid tide, and in 
a bad boat, land in the county of Sutherland, 
and in lefs than an hour reach its capital. 
Dornoch, Dornoch, a fmall town, half in ruins ; once the 
refidence of the Bifhops of Cnthnefs^ and, like Dur- 
ham, the feat of Ecclefuidics : many of the houfcs 
ftill are called ;'!fter the titles of thole that inhabited 
them : the Bifhop lodged in the callle: the Dean's 
houfe is at prefent the inn : the cathedral was in form 
of a crofs, and is now a ruin, except parr, which 
is the prefent church. On the doors and window- 
lhu:ters were painted (as is common in many parts 
of Nor/ h Britain) white tadpole-like figures on a 
black ground, dcHgned toexprefs the tears of the 
. country for the lofs of any perfon of diftinclion. 
'J'hefe were ocraOon'ed by the afl*e(5ting end of that 
amiable pair the young Earl and Countefs ofSulbsr- 
hnd, who were lovely in their lives, and in their 
deaths they v/ere not divided, for their happinefs 
was interrupted by a very fhort feparation \fnne uhi 
idem et maxtmus et honejfi'ffimus amor eft, alic^uando 
p\rflat morte jungi, qunrn vita dtjtrahi *. 

Ride on a plain not far from the fea; pafs by a 
fmill crofs, called the Tbtine^s Crofs \ and not far 
from thence the fpot where an unhappy creature 
had been"' burnt, if I miftake not, in yi4j!e i 727, for 

tr.e imaginary crime of witcbc)-i:ftf. 


• Whef<* a'mutual and inoft arr^rnt and mod virtuous 
alvet^Vion rrigiis, it is fomctimcs prelei^ble to be united by 
death, than torn artindcr by liTc. 

f" This i, the lall InHaacc of ihcfc frantic executions in 



Crofs a very narrow inlet to a frnaU bay at Porth' 
heg^ or the little ferry, in a boat as dangerous as 
the laft ; for horfes can neither get in or cut with- 
out great rifque, from the vaft height of the fides 
and their want of flips. Keep along the ihore, 
pafs by the fmall village of Golfpie, and reach 

Dunrobin caftle, the anticnt feat of the Earls of Dunrohlut 
Sutherlatid^ founded about the year iioo, fituatcd 
on a round hill at a fmall diftance from the fea. 
The fev/ paintings here are, an Earl oi Murray ^ an 
old man, on wood. His fon and two daughters, 
by Co. G. 1628. A fine full length of Charles I. 
Aligns WilUamfoiu a. hero of the clan Chattan, who 
refcued the Sutherlands in the time of diftrefs. A 
very fingular picture- of the Duke of Aha in coun- 

the north of Scotland, as that in the fcath was at Paijly in 
i6q6, where, among others, a woman, young and handfome, 
fuffered, with a reply to her enquiring friends, worthy a 
Roman matron, being aJked why llie did not make a better 
defence on her tryzX, zni':ievc6, My per/ecutors ha've iitjiroyed 
my honor, and my life is not noiu luorih the pains of defending. 
The lall inllance of national credulity on this head was the 
ftory of the witches of Thurfo, who tormenting for a long 
time an honeft fellow under the ufual form of cats, at lall 
provoked him {q, that one right he put them to flight wi'.h 
his broad fword, and cut off the leg of one lefs nimble than 
the reft ; on his taking it up, to his amazement he found it 
belonged to a female of his own fpecics, and next morning 
dilcovered the owner, an old hag, with only the com pa- 
nion leg to thif. The horrors of the tale were confiderabiy 
abated in the place I heard it, by an unlucky enquiry made 
by one in company, 'vi-x.. In what part would the old woman 
have fufFered, had the man cut off the cat's tail ? But Hhefc 
relations of almoft obfolete fuperftitions muft never be 
though t a refleftion on this country, as long as any memory re- 
mains of the tragical end of the poor people at Trmg, who, 
within a few miles of our capital, in 1751, f^^H a facrificeto 
the belief of the common people in witches, or of that 
ridiculous impofture in the capital itfelf, in 1762, of the Cock' 
l,ant ghoft, which found credit with all lanks of people^ 


15^ A T O U R 

cil, with a cardinal by his fide, who puts a pair of 
bellows blown by the Devil into his ear; the Duke 
lias a chain in one hand, fixed to the necks of the 
kneeling Flemings ; in the other he fhews them a 
paper of recantation for them to fign, behind whom 
are the reformed Clergy. 

The demefn is keep in excellent order, and I 
faw here (lat. 58.) a very fine field of wheat, which 
would be ripe about the middle of next month. 

This was the laft wheat which had been fown 
this year in North Britain, 

Sutherland is a country abounding in cattle, and 
fends out annually 2500 head, which fold about 
this time from 2I. los. 1031. * per head. Thefe 
are very frequently without horns, and both they 
and the horfes are very fmall. Stags abound in 
the hills, there being reckoned not lefs than i6qo 
on the Sutherland eftate, which, in fad, is the 
greateft part of the county... Befides thefe are Roes, 
Grous, black game and Ptarmigans in plenty, and 
during winter multitudes of water-fowl on the 

Not far from Dunrohin is a very entire antiquity 

of the kind known in Scotland by the name of the 

FiHijhQdX- P/<J?(/^ Caftles, and called here Cairn Lean, or a 

tki. gj-ey tower: that I faw was about 130 yards in 

circumference, round, and raifed fo high above the 

ground as to form a confiderable mount : on the 

top was an extenfive but (hallow hollow ; within 

were three low concentric galleries, at fmall dif- 

tances from each other, covered above with large 

(tones j and the fide-walls were about four or five 

f Lean. 


I N S C O T L A N D. >57 

feet thick, rudely made. There arc generally three 
of thefe places near each other, fo that each may 
be feen from any one. Whether thefe were the 
fuffugia hiemi aut receptacula frugihus of the Pi^ts^ 
as they were of the Germans^ or whether they 
might not have been ufed for religious purpofes, as 
fuch hollows have been in Norway *, I will not 
pretend to decide : if the laft, I would fuppofe 
fome of the galleries to be for the priefts, the 
others for the viftims, who were chofen by lot, 
and who might be brought to be facrificed in the 
concave area above, which was well adapted to 
retain their blood, that was to be fprinkled on 
the fpecftators, on the polls of their houfes, and on 
the fails of their fhips f. 

Kept along the Ihore northward. About a mile Auo. 19. 
from the caftle are fome fmall cliffs of free-ftone ; 
in one is Straith-leve7i Cove, an artificial cave, with 
feats and feveral Ihallow circular hollows cut within- 
fide. At fome diftance, and near the fea, are 
fmall ftrata of coal three feet thick dipping to the Coal. 
eaft, and found at the depth of about 14 to 24 
yards. Sometimes it takes fire on the bank, which 
has given it fo ill a name, that people are very 
fearfull of taking it aboard their fhios. I am fur- 
prized that they will not run the rifque, confider- 
ing the miraculous quality it poflefles of driving 
away rats wherever it is ufed. This is believed by 
the good people of Sutherland^ who affured me 
fsrioufly of its virtues •, and they farther attributed 
the fame to the earth and very heath of their 

• Wormii Monumenta Danica lib, I. p. 6. 
•f Wbrm, Monum, lib, V .p, 2<j. 

2 county. 

15^1 A T O U R 

connty. They add too, that not a rat will live 
with therq, notwithitanding they fwarm in the ad- 
jacent fliires of Ro/s and Cathnefs *. 

In /IJfynt^ a. part of this county, far weft of Dun^ 

rQhiriy are large ftrata of a beautiful white marble, 

*cqua], as I was told, to the Parian. I afterwards 

faw Tome of the fame kind found at Clenavon in 


Crofs the water of Brora, which runs along a 
deep chafm, over which is a handfome bridge of a 
fingle arch. Near is a cave, where the Salmon- 
fidiers lit during the feafon : the roof is pierced 
through to the furface, which fcrves for a natural 
chimney. They take annually about lo or 12 lafts 
of fifh. In a bank not far from the bridge are 
found abundance of Belemmt<e. 

The country is very fandy, and the arable, or 
cultivated parr, very narrow, confined on the caft 
by the fea, on the wed by lofcy black mountains, 
which approach nearer and nearer to the water, till 

• Some years ago I bought of the Monks, at the great 
BeneJiSiinc convene at /lug/burg, Tome papers of St. Ulric'% 
earth, which I was afl'urcd, by Lutheran and Papiji, had the 
Tame rat-cxpclling quality with that above-mentioned ; but 
whether for want of due faith, or negledl of attending to the 
forms of the printed prefcripiion given with them (here copied 
at full length) I know not, but the auuacious aniinals haunt 
iTiy hoiHe in fpite of ii : — VcnerabiUs Rdiqu-if Jt Terra St- 
puk'-rali, Jive de rejhluta a'cintus cnrne S. Udalrici Coiif. if 
Epijcopi Auquftani ; qu.v ft honorifiie ad injfor aUarum Rcli- 
quiarum hahnntur, l£ ad Dei laudetn, Diinque PrtrfuUs honcrerrtt 
plum quoddttm opus^ v. g. Oratio, "Jrjunium, Eleemofyna^ &c. 
pra:jhtury mirum ejl, qua polJcant e^cacia, ad projcribcndts 
prajtrtim c domibus, tif ijicinia Glim, qui fubjljlere minimc va- 
lent, ubieuHqne fnniles Rrliquite aim Jidmcid fucriut afpenfa, 'utl 
ajjirvata. Idque ex Jpteiali prrsrogau-vd, qua omnipotens Deas 
infignia tantiPatroni meriia ptrpttut miraculoJiatHit condecorart. 



at length they projcfl into it at the great promon- 
tory the Ord of Cathnefs^ the boundary between 
that county and 'Sutherland^ after which the coaft is 
bold and rocky, except a fmall bay or two. 

Ford tiie very dangerous wz^ter of fJemfdale, rapid Hmfaale, 
•nd full of great (lones. Very large Lampries are 
found here, fifh detcfted by the Highlanders. Be- 
neath the ftones on the fea-ftiore are abundance of 
fpotted and viviparous Biennies, Father Lafiiers, 
and Whiftie FiQi. IVIackrel appear here this month, 
but without their roes. I thought them far inferior 
in goodnefs to thofe of our counLry. Much fal- 
mon is taken here. 

The grey Water-wagtail quits this country in 
the winter ; with us it refides. 

Dined at the little village of Hemfdale ,', near 
which are the ruins of a fquare tower. 

Pafisd through a rich vale full of good barley 
and oats between the hill of Hemfdale and the Ord. Ord of Caih- 
Afcend that vaft promontory on a good road wind- ^^•^^' 
ing up its deep lidesj and impending in many parts 
over the fea, infinitely more high and horrible tlian 
our Fenviacn Mawr. Beneath v/ere numbers of 
Seals floating on the waves, v^ith fea-fowl fw/imming 
among them with great fccurity. Obferved" pro- 
jecting from one part of the 0;v/, far below, a fmall 
and verdant hill, on which, tradition fays, was 
fought a fingle combat between an Earl of Cathnejs 
and a fon of the Earl of Sutherland, while their two 
armies looked on from above: the £rft was killed 
on the fpot, the lad died of his wounds. 

Beneath this cape are immenfe caves, the-refof: 


i6o A T O U R 

of Seals * and Sea-fowls : the fides and top are 
chiefly covered with heath and morafly earth, which 
gives it a black and melancholy look. Ride over 
fome boggy and dreary moors. Pafs thro' AufdaJc, 
a little highland village. Defcend into a deep bot- 
tom covered with alders, willows, birch and wicken 
trees, to Langwall, the feat of Mr. Sutherland, who 
gave me a very hofpitable reception. The coun- 
try abounds with Stags and Roes, and all forts of 
feathered game, while the adjacent river brings 
Salmon almoft up to his door. 
Lavcllan. \ enquired here after the Lavellanf, which, from 
defcription, I fufped to be the Water Shrew- 
moufe. The country people have a notion that it 
is noxious to cattle : they preferve the Ikin, and, 
as a cure for their fick beads, give them the 
water in which it has been dipt. I believe it to 
be the fame animal which in Sutherland is called 
the Water Mole. 
Aug. 20. Proceed on my journey. Pafs near Berridale. 
On a peninfula jutting into the fea is the ruin of the 
caftle ; between it and the land is a deep chafm, 
where there had been a draw-bridge. On this caftlc 
are ftationed, in the falmon feafon, perfons who arc 
to obferve the approach of the fifh to the freih 

Near Clathron is a druidical ftone fet an end, 
and of a moft ftupendous fizc. 

• During fpring great quantities of I.ump-fifh refort here, 
ar^d are the prey of the Seals, as appears from the numbers of 
their flcins, which at that feafon float afhorc. The Seals, at 
certain times, fecm vifited with a great mortality ; for at 
th"fe times multitudes of them are feen dead in the water. 

t SitbaUhiJi.Scbtland. Br . ZaoU illuji . cii. 


I N S C O T L A N D. i5i 

Saw Bunheth *, the feat of Mr. Sinclair, fituated Dmbetb. 
on a narrow neck of land ; on one fide impending 
over the Tea, on the other over a deep chafm, into 
which the tide fiov/s : a fmall narrow garden, with 
billows beating on three fides, fills the reft of the 
land between the houfe and the fea. Numbers of 
old caftles in this county have the fame tremendous 
fituation. On the weft fide of this houfe are a few 
rows of tolerable trees ; the only trees that I faw. 
from Berridale to the extremity oi Cathnefs -f. On 
the right inland are the fmall remains of Knnckennan 
caftle, built by an Earl of Cnthnefs. From thefe 
parts is a full view of the lofty naked mountain cf 
Scaraben and Morven. The laft Ptamiigans in Scaral^Gi 
Scotland are on the fi^ft^•, the laft Roes about Lang- 
wally there being neither high hills nor woods be- 
yond. All the county on this fide, from Dunbeib 
to the extrem.ity, is flat, or at left very feldom in- 
terrupted with hills, and thofe lov/ ; but the coafts 
rocky, and compofed of ftupendous cliffs. 

Refreftied our horfes at a little inn at the hamlet 
of Clyihe, not far from the headiandi called Clythe- 
nefs. Reach Thrtimjler, a feat of Mr. Sinclair^. 
It is obfervable, that the names of places in thifi 
county often terminate in ter and dak^ v/hich favors 
of Danijh origin. 

The Sinclairs are very numerous, and poHefs 
confiderable fortunes in thefe parts ; but BoeihiuS 

* This caftle was taken and garrifoned by the Marquifs of 
Montrofe '\n I'Sjo, immediately preceding his final defeat. 

f But valt quantity of fubterransojs timber in all the 
moors. Near Dunbeth is an entire FiS}s caflle, with the hol- 
low iu the top, and is called the Bourg of Dunbeth. 

M faysj 


162 A T O U R 

Tays, that tliey, the Frciziers, Camphdls, BofiveU^ 
and many others, came originally from Trance. 
•Aun^.^zK Pafs through Wick^ a fmall burrough town with 
fome good Iioufcs, feated on a river within reacli 
of the tide, and at a diftance lies the old caftle. 
Somewhat farther, clofe to the fea, is Archringal 
tower, the feat of Sir IVilHam Dunhnr, Ride over 
the Links of Keith^ on the fide of Sinclair bay. 
Thefe were once a morafs, now covered with iand, 
finely turfed over -, fo in this inftance the land has 
been obliged by the inftability of the fand. The 
old caftle of Keifs is feated on a rock, with a good 
hoLife of the fame name near it. 

Near Frefioick caftle the cliffs are very lofty j 
the ftrata that compofe them lie quite horizontally 
in fuch thin and regular layers, and fo often inter- 
fe6ted by fifllires, ns to appear like mafonry. Be- 
neath are great infulated columns, called here 
Stacks^ compofed of the fame 1 .»rt of natural ma- 
fonry as the cliffs ; many of them are hollowed 
quite thro', fo as to form moft" magnificent arches, 
which the fea ruflics' thro' v/ith vaft noife and im- 
petuofity, affording a moft auguft piece of fcencry 
to fuch who arc fleady enough to furvey it from the 
narrow and almoft impending paths. 
Frt/ivick Frffivick caftle is feated on a narrow rock pro- 
jeding into the fea, with juft room enough for'it 
to ftand on : the accefs to it while the draw- bridge 
was in being, was over a deep chafm cut thro' the 
little ifthmus that conne(^.ed it to the main land. 
1 hcfe dreadful fiiuations arc ftrongly exprcfiive of 




I N S C O T L A N D. 163 

the jealous and v/retched condition of the tyrant 

After riding near Frefivhk bay, the fecond fandy 
bay in the county, pafs over a very bad morals, 
and after a few miles travel arrive at Bungjh bay *, Dungjhy bay, 
a low tracl, confining of oat-lands and grazing 
land : the ullima "Thule of Mr. Wallace, whofe dc- 
fcription it fully anfwer.s in this particular. 

'^am juxta infamcs fcopi'.H, ei petrofa vora^o 
Afperat undifonis faxa pudenda vadis -}-. 

The beach is a colle6tion of fragments of Ihells ♦, 
beneath which are vaft broken rocks, fome funk, 
others apparent, running into a fea never pacific. 
The contrary tides and currents form here a moft 
tremendous ccnteft ; yet, oy the ikilfulnefs of the 
people, are pafied with great fafety in the narrow 
little boats I faw lying on the fhore. 

The points of this bay are Dungjhy h^zd and St. 

John's head, flretching out into the fea to the eaft 

and weft, forming a pair of horns ; from the re- 

femblance to which it iLould feem that this country 

• was antiently ftyled Cornana. 

From hence is a full view of feveral of the Orkney q ■> , ^ > 
iflands, fuch as FlofUy fFaes^ Ronaldfa, S'lvanna, to 
the weft the Skerries^ and within two miles of land 
Stroma, famous for its natural mummies, or the j^iyj^mlcs. 
entire and uncorrupted bodies of perfons who had 
been dead fixty years. I was informed that they 
were very light, had a flexibility in their limbs, and 

• John a Grout" s houfe is now known oniy by name. The 
proper name of the bay is Duncan's, 

f Quoted by Mr. Wallace &om the Itn Balthkum of 
Conrad us Cehes, 

M 2 were 

164 A T O U R 

were oi' a dufky color *. This ifle is fertile in corn, 
is inhabited by about thirty families, who know 
not the life of a plough, but dig every part of their 
corn land. 

Dine at the good miniftcr's of Canmjhy. On my 
return faw at a diilance the Stacks of Dungjhy, a 
vail infulated rock, over-topping the land, and ap- 
pearing like a great tower. 

''Pafied near the feat of a gentleman not long 
dcceafed ; the lad who was believed to be poffcfled 
Second .I^I.r, of x\\z fccond fight. Originally he made ufe of the 
pretence, in order to render liimfelf more refpedtabic 
with his clan-, but at length, in fpite of fine abili- 
ties, was made a dupe to his own artifices, became 
poflcfTed with a ferious belief of the faculty/and for 
a confiderable number of years before his death 
was made trucly unhappy by this flrange opinion, 
which originally arofe from the following accident. 
Ik boat of his was on a very tempelluous night at 
fea ; his mind, filled with anxiety at the danger his 
people were in, furnillied him with ej'ery idea of 
the misfortune that really befell them : he fuddenly 
itarting'up pronounced that his men would be 
drowned, for that he had fcen them pafs before 
him with wet garments and dropping locks. The 
event was correfpondent, and he from that time 
grew confirmed in the reality of fpedral prcdid:ions. 

* In the Philofcphical TranfaSiont abridged, viii. 705. is an 
alnioR parallel in!fance of two corpfes, found in a moor in 
Derhyjhtre, that had 101-49 years refilled putrcr.i<!^ion, and were 
in muvh the (Jmc Hate as tliofe in t^irctna. In vol. xlvii. of 
the P}}. Tr. at large, is an account of a body found entire and 
imputrid at Stairrien in Devonjhirt, 80 years after its inter- 




^«///J/m4 J'lrt^e^^ 

Ji. J/Ut-nf}' J' 


There is another fort of divination, called Sleina- 
nachdt or reading ihc fpeal-hom^ or the blade- bone 
of a fhoulder of mutton well fcrnped. When Lord 
hcudon was obliged to retreat before the Rebels to 
the ifle of ^kie^ a common foldier, on the very mo- 
ment the battle of Culloden was decided, proclamed 
the vi(5lory at that diftance, pretending to have dif- 
covered the event by looking through the bone. 

I heard of one inftance cf fecond fight, or rather 
of forefight, which was well attefted, and made 
much noife about the time the prediflion was ful- 
filled. A little after the battle of PrejJon Pans, the 
prefident, Duncan Forbes, being at his houfe of Cul- 
loden with a nobleman, from whom I had the rela^ 
tion,fell into difcourfe on the probable confequcnces 
of the action : after a long converfaticn, and after 
revolving all that might happen, Mr. Forbes fud- 
denly turning to a window, faid. All tbefe things may 
f:dl out \ hut depend on ity all ihefe dijlurbantes "j^ill 
he terminated on this [pot. 

Returned the fame road. Saw multitudes of Gaanets. 
Gamiets, or Soland Geefe, on their pafiage noith- 
ward : they went in fmall flocks from five to fifteen 
in each, and continued p.'fTing for hours: it was a 
fiormy day -, they kept low and near the fhore ; but 
never pafiTed over the land, even when a bay with 
promontories intervened, but followed (preferving 
an equal diftance from fhore) the form of the bay, 
and then regularly doubled the Capes. I faw many 
parties make a fort of halt for the fake of fifliing; 
they foared to a great height, then darting down 
headlong into the fca made the water foam and 
M 3 fprir.g 

'i<^(^ A T o u ri 

fprinw up with the violence of iheir defcent ; after 

which they purfued their route. 

Swans refort in O^lober to the Loughs of Hem- 

frigs and IVaJi^r^ and continue there till March. 

Abundance of I and-rails are found throughout the 

county. Multitudes of Sea-fowl breed in the cliffs: 

among others, the Lyre \ but tlie fcaf n being pad, 

I neither faw it, nor could unoeifcand what fpecies 

it was. 

Z-n-n-r Vr.y Wcnt alonpj a fine hard fand on the edge of 5'/«- 
and calUe. ^^^^^y j^^^^ q^^ ^j^^ j-^^^^^j^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ l^cfshead, on 

the fame rock, are Sinclair and Carnego caftles ; 
but, as if the joint tenants, like beads of prey, bad 
been in fear of each other, there was between them 
a draw-bridge ; the firll too had an iron door, 
which dropped from above through grooves Hill 
Produce of r Qathtiefs may be called an immenfe morafs, mixed 
with fome fruitfull fpotsof oats and barley, mrch 
ccarfe grafs, and here and there fome fine, almoll 
all natural, there being as yet very little artificial. 
At this time was the hay harveft both here and 
about Dunrcbin : the hay on this rough land is cut 
with very fliort fcythes, and with a brilk and ftrong 
flroke. The country produces and exports great 
quantities of catrriealy and much whifky is diftilled 
from the barley : the great thinncfs of inhabitants 
throughout Ccdhiejs enables them to fend abroad 
much of its produdions,^ No wiieat had been raifed 
this year in the county -, and I was inform.ed that 
this grain is fown here in the fpring, by reafon of 
the wet and fury of the winters. 



The county is fuppoled to fend out, in fome Cattle. 
years, 2200 head of cattle -, but in bad feafons, the 
farmer kills and faks numbers for fale. Great 
numbers of fwine are reared here: they are fhort, 
high-backed, long-briftled, (harp, flender and long- 
nofed ; have long eredl ears, and moft favage 
io >ks, and are feen tethered in almofl- every field. 
The reft of the commodities of Cathnefs are butter, 
cheefe, tallow, hides, the oil and fkins of feals, and 
the feathers of geefe. 

Here are neither barns or granaries •, the corn is 
thraflied out and preferved' in the chafT" in hykes, 
which are ftacks in fhape of bee-hives, thatched 
quite round, where it will keep good for two years. 

Much Salmon is taken at Cajile-hill, Dunet, JVick^ Salmon. 
and Thurfo. The miraculous draught at the lafl 
place is flill talked of; not lefs than 2500 being 
taken at one tide, within the memory of man. At 
a fmall diftance from Sinclair caftle, near Staxigo 
creek, is a fmall herring- fifhery, the only one on 
the coaft : Cod and other white fifh abound here ; 
but the want of ports on this flormy coafl is an ob- 
ftacle to the eflablifhment of fifheries on this fide 
the country. 

In the month of November numbers of Seals * are Seals, 
taken in the vafl caverns that open into the fea and 
run fome hundreds of yards under ground. Their 
entrance is narrow, their infide lofty and fpacious. 
The Seal-hunters enter thefe in fmall boais with 

* Sometimes a large fpecies near twelve feet long has beea 
killed en the coaft ; and I have been informed that the fame 
kind a;e found on the rock ////5/r, one of the weftern ifles. 

M 4 torches 

A T O U R 

torches, which they light as foon as they land, and 
then v/ith loud fliouts alarm the animals, which 
tliey kill with clubs as they attempt to pafs. This 
is a hazardous employ ; for (liould the wind blow 
hard from fea, thefe adventuiers are inevitably 
loft *. 

Much lime-ftone is found in this country, which 
when burnt is made into a compoft with turf and 
tang. The tender fex (I blu{h for the Cathnejians) 
are the only animals of burden : they turn their 
patient backs to the dunghills, and receive in their 
kcizcs^ or baflcets, as much as their lords and maf- 
ters think fit to fling in with their pitchforks, and 
then trudge tothefields in droves of fixtyor feventy. 
The common people are kept here in great fervi- 
tude, and moft of their time is given to their Lairds, 
an invincible impediment to the profperity of thi^ 

Of the ten pariflies in Cathnefs, only the four 
that lie S. E. fpeak Erje ; all the others fpeak Erig- 
lijfj^ and that in greater purity than moll part of 
JNorth Britain. 

Inoculation is much pradifcd by an ingenious 
pliyfician (Dr. Mackenzie, of fFick) in this county, 
nnd alfo the Orkneys +, with great fuccefs, with- 
out any previous preparation. The fuccefs was 
equally great at Sanda-, a poor ifle, where there 
was no fort of fuel but what was t>ot from dried 
cow-dung : but hi all thefe places, tlie fniall-pox is 
very fatal in the natural way. Other difeafes in 

* For a fuller account. 'viJe Br. Zool. illujfr. 3S. 
t At this time a perfon was employed in the fame bufincfs 
>n the .S/Y//«/;d'jflandi. 

2 Calhncfs 

I N S C O T L A N D. ' 169 

Cathnefs are colds, coughs, and very frequently 

I came here too late * to have any benefit from the Long days, 
great length of days •, but from June to the middle 
of July, there is fcarce any night ; for even at what 
is called midnight the fmalkft print may be read, 
fo truely did Juvenal ftyle thefe people, 

Minima content os noEle Britanxos. 

On my way between Thrumjler and Btinheth, Aug. 23. 
again faw numbers of flocks of Ganncts keeping Gannets. 
due north, and the weather being very calm they 
flew high. It has not been obferved that they ever 
return this way in the fpring ; but feem to make a - 
circuit of the ifland,- till they again arrive at the 
Bafs, their only breeding- place on the eaftern 

On defcending a fleep hill is a romantic view of Berridak. 
the two bridges over the waters of Berridak and 
Langwall^ and their wooded glens, and of the caftle 
of Berridak -f, over the fea, where the Salmon- 
fiihers flation themfelves to obferve the approach 
of thofe fifh out of the ocean. After a tedious 
afcent up the King's road of four miles, gain the 
top of the Ordy defcend, and lie at Hemfdale. 

Re-vifit the fame places, till I pafs Dingwall. Auc. 24, 
Crofs \.\itConan in a boat, a very beautiful! river, ^° ^9- 
not remote fromCaJlle Braan. Was in this neigh- 

* Befides the miffing fo lingular a phaenomenon, I found 
that the bad weather, which begins earlier in the north, was 
fetting in : I would therefore recommend to any traveller, 
who means to take this diftant tour, to fet out from Edinburgh 
a month fooner than myfelf. 

t A Utile up the land is the ruin of Ach-cajlk. 


I/O A T O U R 

Slr.2o]zr boi iiood informed of other fingular cudoms of the 
J lignlanders. 

On New-year's day they burn juniper before 
their cattle, and on the firft Monday in every quar- 
ter fprinkle them with urine. 

In fomc parts of the country is a rural facrifice, 
different from that before- mentioned. A crofs is 
cut on fome flicks, which is dipped in pottage, and 
the Thurfday before Eajler one of each placed over 
the fhecpcor, the ftable, or the cow-houie. On 
the I ft ot May they are carried to the hill where the 
rites are celebrated, all decked with wild flowers, 
and after the feaft: is over, re- placed over the fpots 
they were taken from •, and this was originally ftyleJ 
C!cii-d;i-Be!tein *, or the fplit branch of the fire of 
the rock. Thefe follies are now fcldom pradifed, 
and that with the utmofl fccrecy ; for the Clergy 
are indefatigable in difcouraging every fpecies of 

In certain places, the death of people is fuppofed 
to be foretold by the cries and fhrieks of Ben/hi^ or 
the Fairies wife, uttered along the very path where 
the funeral is to pafs ; and what in Wales are called 
corps candles, are often imagined to appear, and 
foretell mortality. 
M3r!i.-;r.e The courtlhip of the Highlander has thefe t9* 

cui^.ouib. markable circumftances attending it : after pri* 

vately obtaining the confcnt of the Fair, he formally 
demands her of the father. The Lover and his 
Friends afTemblc on a hill allotted for that purpofe 
in every parilh, and one of them is difpatched to 

* M PltrjWs intrzduaioK, &c. i66. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 171 

obtain permiffion to wait on the daughter ; if hi; 
is ruccefsfuU, he is again lent to invite the father 
and his friends to afcend the hill and partake of a 
whifl<y cafk, which is never forgot : the Lover ad- 
vances, takes his future Father-in- bw by the hand, 
and then plights his troth, and the Fair-one is fur- 
rendered up to him. During the marriage cere- 
mony, great care is taken that dogs do not pafs 
between them, and particular attention is payed to 
the leaving the Bridegroom's left-llioc without 
buckle or latchet, to prevent witches * from de- 
priving him, on the nuptial night, of the power of 
loofening ,the virgin zone. As a teft, not many 
years ago a fingular cuftom prevaled in the ■ivcjiern 
Highlands the morning after a wedding : a bafket 
•was faftencd Vv'ith a cord round the neck of the 
bridegroom by the female part of the company, 
who immediately filled it with ftones, till the poor 
man was in great danger of being (Irangled, if his 
bride did not take compafiion on him, and cut the 
cord with a knife given her to ufe at difcretion. But 
fuch was the tendernefs of the Caledonian fpoufcs, 
that never was an inftance of their negleding an 
immediate relief of their good man. 

Pafs near the abby f of Ber.ttUeu^ a large ruin ; 
. crofs the ferry, and again reach Jnz-ernefs, 

iVlake an excurfion ten miles fouth of Invernefs Aug. 30. 
to Moy-ball, pleafanily feated at the head cf a fmall Moy-haU. 

• An old opinion. G^/ztt fays that the wirches made ufe 
offoatls as a charm, Ut njiin. (oeundi, nifallor^ in i;ir:s telle- 
rent. Gefner de quad. ovj. p. 72. 

t Founded about 1219, by Lord Patrick B^ptt, for the 
monks 0* Vall^ombrefa, 


172 A T O U R 

but beautifull lak,e of the fame name, full of Trour, 
and Cbar^ called in the Erfe^ 'Tnriar-kimch, and in 
the Scotch, Red Weems. This water is about two 
miles and a half long, and half a mile broad, 
adorned with two or three ifles prettily wooded. 
Each fide is bounded by hills cloathed at the bot- 
tom with trees; and in front, at the diftance of 
thirty miles, is the great mountain of Karn Goran, 
patched with fnow. 

This place is called Stafach na gaily or the thrc- 
Hiold of the Highlands, being a very natural and 
ftrongly marked entrance from the north. This 
tianChattan. js the feat of the Clan Chat t an, o^ the W-IntcJIjcs, 
once, a powerfuU people : in the year 1715, fifteen 
hundred took the field •, but in 1745* fcarce half 
that number : like another Ahfalom, their fair mif- 
trefs was in that year fuppofed to have ilolen their 
hearts from her Z-^/r^ their chieftain : but the feve- 
reft loyalift muft admit fome extenuation of their 
error, in yielding to the infinuations of fo charming 
a feducer. 

Boethius relates, that in his time hrccriufs was 
greatly frequented by merchants from Germany, 
who purchafed here the furs of feveral forts of wild 
beafls* ; and that wild horfes were found in great 
abundance in its neighborhood : that the country 
yielded a great deal of wheat and other corn, and 

• ^d NcfHe lacui longi quatuor et nj'tginti pnffi/um m'tUia, Inti 
dncdecim later a, propter ingentia tiemora fcrarutn ingens (opia rji 
rertorum, equorum itidojnilcrum, caprcohrum et eju/tr.odi aninian- 
* iium magna lii : ad hccc tnarttriUtS, Foiihi/r, ut 'vulgo 'vocaiitur, 

I'ulpcsy viuJicUte, Fihri, Lulrii que tncomparabili nnmero''quornm 
lergcrn extern gentes ad luxum immenjo pretio coemunt. tjcot. 
Regni Defer, ix. Hift. Scot. x,\x. 


I N 5 C O T L A N D. 173 

quantities of nuts and apples. At prefent. there is 
a trade in the flvins of Deer, Roes, and other beads, 
v.'hich the Highlanders bring down to the fairs. 
There happened to be one at this time ; the com- 
modities were flcins, various neceflaries brought in 
by the Pedlars, coarfe country cloths, cheefe, but- 
ter and meal ; the laft in goat-flcin bags ; the but- 
ter lapped in cavvls, or leaves of the broad aha or 
tang; and great quantities of birch wood and hazel 
cut into lengths for carts*, ccc. which had been 
floated down the river from Loiigb-Nefs. 

The fair was a very agreeable circumftance, and Highland 
afforded a moft fmguLir groupe of Highlanders in 
all their motly dreffes. Their brechan^ or plaid, 
confifts of twelve or thirteen yards of a narrow 
ftuff, wrapt round the middle, and reaches to the 
knees : is often fallened round the middle with a 
belt, and is then called hrechan-feal\ but in cold 
weather, is large enough to wrap round the whole 
body from head to feet -, and this often is their 
only cover, not only within doors, but on the open 
hills during the whole night. It is frequently 
faftened on the fhoulders with a pin often of filver 
and before with a brotche (like the fihula of the 
Romans), which is fometimes of filver, and both 
large and expenfive ; the old ones have very fre- 
quently mottos. 

The (lockings are fliort, and are tied below the 
knee. The cuoranen is a fort of laced Ihoe made 
of a fkin with the hairy fide out. but now feldom 
worn. The truiJJj were worn by the gentry, and 
were breeches and (lockings made of one piece, 


A T O U R 

The fllehi^i i. e. little plaid, alfo called kelt, is 
a fort of fhorc petticoat reaching only to the 
knees, and is a modern fubftiturc for the lower 
part of the plaid, being found to be lefs cumbcr- 
fomc, cfpccially in time of aiflion, when the High- 
lenders uled to tuck their hcc/jan into their girdle. 
ALmoIl all have a great pouch of badger and other 
fkins, with tafiels dangling before. In this they 
keep their tobacco and money. 

Their antient arms were the Lcchaber ax, now 
ufed by none but the town-guard o^ Edinburgh -y a 
tremendous weapon, better to be exprefled by a 
figure than words *. 

' The broad-fword and target ; with the laft they 
covered themfclvcs, with the firft reached their 
enemy at a great diftance. Thefe were their antienc 
Vv'eapons, as appears by -f Tacitus \ but fince the 
difarming adl, are fcarcely to be met with ; partly 
owing to that, partly to the fpirit of induftry now 
rifing among them, the Highlanders in a few years 
T\'ill fcarce know the ufe of any weapon. 

Bows and arrows v;ere ufed in war as late as the 
middle of the laft Century, as I find in a manufcripc 
life of Sir Eijoin Cameron. 

The dirk was a fort of dagger ftuck in the belt. 
I frequently faw this weapon in the fhambles of 
Invernefsy converted into a butcher's knife, being, 
like Hudibras's dagger, 

A fervlceable dudgeon. 
Either for fighting or for drudging. 

• Vide tab. xii. 

f Sii/iul conjlnntia, fvnul arte Britanni ingentilui gladiis ft 
brenjibus cetris, mijjilia iwjlrorum vitare njel (xcutcre. Vita Agri* 
colx. c. 36. 



The dirk was a weapon ufed by the antient Cak- 
donians, for Dio Cajfius, in his account of the expe- 
dition of Sevsrus, mentions it under the name of 
Hy^&pihov *, Pu^io or Utile Dagger. 

The Matiucajhlafa, or arm-pit dagger, was worn 
there ready to be ufed on coming to clofe quarters. 
Thefe, with a piftol ftuck. in the girdle, completely 
armed the Highlander -f. 

It will be fit to mention here the method the Fiery-crofi. 
Chieftains took formerly to aflemble the clans for 
any military expedition. In every clan there is a 
known place of rendezvous, ftyled Cam a whiiiy 
to which they muft refort on this fignal. A perfon 
is fcnt out full fpeed with a pole burnt at one end 
and bloody at the other, and with a crofs at the 
top, which is called CrcJJj-tairiet the crofs of (hame j, 
or the Hery crofs •, the firit from the difgrace they 
would undergo if they declined appearing ; the fe- 
cond from the penalty of having fire and fword 
carried thro* their country, in cafe of refufal. The 

• Xiphil. epit. Dionis. 

f Major y who wrote about the year 151 3, thiw defcrlbes 
their arms : Arcum et faghtas, latijjimuni enfctn cum par^vo hal^ 
herto, pugionem gro/fum ex /oh uno latere fcindentem, fed acutif- 
ftmutn Jub zona femper ferunt, '■tempore belli loricam ex loris 
fcrreb per totum corpus itiduunt. Lib. 1. c. viii. 

X This ci:(lom was common to the northern Parts c^ Europe 
with fome flight variation, as appears from Olaus Magnus, p. 
146, who dcfcribes it thus, Bacculus tripalmnris, agilioris ju- 
I'enis curfu precipiti, ad ilium ^jel ilium pagum /lU milium kujuf- 
viodi ediSio defer endtis committitur, ut 3, 4. vel 8 die unus, duo 
'vel tresf aut njiritim cmnes 'vel finguli ab anm trilufti, xum 
armis et exfetijis lo 'vcl 20 dierum fub pcena ccmhujiionis dome* 
rum (quo ufio baculo) •vel fufpenjionis Patroni, aut omnium 
(quce fune allegata f.gnatur) in tali ripe, i-d campo, aut 'valle 
comparere teyiear.tur Ji'.hito, caufam vocaticms, atque ordinem exe^ 
eulionii Pra;fecti/? ovincialis, quid fieri iitieat audituri. 


lyS /V T O U R 

firO: bearer delivers it to the next perfon he meets, 
he runnino; full fpeed to the third, and lb on. In 
the late rebellion, it was fent by fome unknown 
difaffeded hand thro' the coumy of Breadalhnet 
and pafTed through a tra6l of thirty-two miles in 
three hours, but without effe6t. 
Women's The women's drels is the kircb, or a white piece 

^^^* of linnen, pinned over the foreheads of thofe that 

are married, and round the hind part of the head, 
falling behind over their necks. The fingle women 
wear only a ribband round their head, which they 
call a fnood. The td/iac^ or plaid, hangs over their 
Ihoulders, and is faftened before with a brotche ; 
but in bad weather is drawn over their heads : I 
have alfo obferved during divine fervice, that they 
keep drawing it forward in proportion as thqir at- 
tention increafes -, infomuch as to conceal at laft: 
their whole face, as if it v/as to exclude every ex- 
ternal object that might interrupt their devotion. 
In the county of Breadalbane, many wear, when in 
high drefs, a great pleated {locking of an enormous 
length, called ojfan. In other refpefts, their drefs 
refembles that of women of the fame rank in Eng- 
land : but their condition is very different, being 
little better than (laves to our fex. 
Character of xhe mai^Iiers of the native Highlanders may 
landers! j^ftl/ t>c cxprefTed in thefe words : ijidgleiit to a 

high degree, iinlefs roufed to war, or to any ani- 
mating amufement •, or I may fay, from experience, 
to lend any difinterefled afTillance to the diftreffed 
traveller, either in diredling him on his way, or af- 
fording their aid in paffing the dangerous torrents 


N S C O T L A N D; 177 

of the Highlands: hofpitable to the highefi: degree, 
and full of generofity : are much affedled with the 
civility of ftrangers, and have in themfelves a natu- 
ral politenefs and addrefs, which often flows from 
the meanefl when left expefted. Thro' my whole 
tour I never met with a angle inftance of national 
reflection ! their forbearance proves them: to be fu- 
perior to the meannefs of retaliation : I fear they pity 
us -, but I hope not indifcrimihately. Are excef- 
lively inc^uifitive afcer your buflnefs, your name, 
and other particulars of little conkquence to them: 
moft curious after the politicks of the v/orld, and 
v/hen they can procure an old nesvs-paper, will 
liften to it with all the ^y idiiy oi Shckefpear's black- 
fmith. Have much pride, and confequently are 
impatient of affronts, and revcngefull of injuries. 
Are decent in their general behaviour; inclined to 
fuperfiition, yet attentive to the duties of religion, 
and are capable of giving a moft diftinft account of 
the principles of their faith. But in many parts of 
the Highlands, their charafler begi^is to be more 
faintly marked •, they mix more with the world, 
and become daily lefs attached to their chiefs : the 
clans begin to difperfe themfelves through different 
parts of the country, finding that their induftry and 
good condudt aflbrd them better prote«ftion (fince 
the due execution of the lav;s) than any their chief- 
tain can afford % and the chieftain tafting the fweets 
of advanced rents, and the benefits of induftry, 
difmifl^es from his table the crowds of retainers, the 
former inftruments of his opprefnon and freak ilh 

K. Moft 

179 A T O U R 

inj.laPiJ Moil of the antient fports of the Highlanders, 

'^^^^'" fuch as archery, hunting, fowling and fifhing, 

are now difufed : thofe retained are, throwing the 
putting-^onc, or ftone of Jlrength*, as they call it, 
which occafions an emulation who can throw a 
weighty one the fartheft. Throwing the penny- 
ftone, which anfwers to our coits. Th^Jhinty, or 
the ftriking a ball of wood or of hair : this game is 
played between two parties in a large plain, and 
furnilhed with clubs-, which-ever fide Itrikes it firft 
to their own goal wins the match. 

The amufements by their fire-fides were, the 
telling of tales, the wildeft and moft extravagant 
imaginable : mufick was another : in former times, 
the harp was the favorite inftrument, covered with 
leather and ftrung with wire -f, but at prefent is 
Bagpipes. quite loft. Bagpipes are fuppofed to have been 
introduced by the Dnnes -, the oldeft are played 
with the mouth, the loudeft and moft ear-piercing 
of any wind mufick ; the other, played with the 
fingers only, are of Irijh origin : the firft fuited 
the genius of this warlike people, rouzed their 
courage to battle, alarmed them when fecure, and 
colleded them when fcattered. This inftrument is 
become fcarce fince the abolition of the power of 
the chieftains, and the more ixiduftrious turn of the 
common people^ 

Vocal mufick was much in vogue amongft them, 
and their fongs were chiefly in praife of their antient 

• Cloch Heart. 

f Major fays, Pro mujicis in/Irumtntis et mujleo concentUf Lyra. 
Jj,Jue/lres utuntur, cujus chordas ex are, tt 7ion tx animaltum sk- 
tejiinii /aciunt, in qua dukijp.mi modulantur, 



heroes. I was told that they dill have fragments of 
the ftory of Fingal and others, which they carrol 
as they go along •, theie vocal traditions are the 
foundation of the works of OJJian. 

Leave Invernefs, and continue my journey weft Aug, 31, 
for fome time by the river-fide : have a fine view 
of the plain, the Tommin, the town and the dillanc 
hills. After a ride of about fix miles reached 
Lough-Nefs *, and enjoyed along its banks a molt 
romantic and beautiful! Icenery, generally in woods 
of birch, or hazel, mixed with a few holly, vv'hite- 
thorn, afpin, adi and oak, but open enough in all 
parts to admit a fight of the water. Sometimes the 
road was ftrait for a confiderable diftance, and re- 
fembled a fine and regular avenue ; in others it 
wound about the fides of the hills which over- 
hung the lake : the road was frequently cut thro' 
the rock, which on one fide formed a folid wall i 
on the other, a fteep precipice. In many parts we 
were immerfed in woods ; in others, they opened 
and gave a view of the fiJes and tops of the vaft 
mountains foaring above: fome of thefe were naked, 
but in general covered with wood, except on the 
meer precipices, or where the grey rocks denied 
vegetation, or where the heath, now glowing with 
purple bloflbms, covered the furface. The form 
of thefe hills was very various and irregular, either 
broken into frequent precipices, or towering into 
rounded fummits cloathed with trees ; but not fo 
clofe but to admit a fight of the fky between them, 

*This beautiful! lake has a great refcmblance to fome parts 
of the lake <^ Lncertif, efpecially towards theealt end. 

N 2 Thus, 

i3o A r O U R 

Thus, for many miles, there was no polTibility o^ 
cultivation -, yet this tradt was occupied by dimi- 
nutive cattle, by Sheep, or by Goats : the laft were 
pied, and lived mod luxurioufly on the tender 
branches of the trees. The wild animals that pof- 
fefled this pidlurefque fcene were Stags and Roes, 
black game, and Grous -, and on the fummits, 
white Hares and Ptarmigans. Foxes are fo nume- 
rous and voracious that the farmers are fometimes 
forced to houfe their Sheep, as is done in France^ 
for fear of the Wolves *. 

The north fide oi Lough -Nefs is far lefs beau- 
tifull than the fouth. In general, the hills are lefs 
high, but very deep ; in a very few places covered 
with brulh-wood, but in general very naked, from 
the Aiding of the ftrata down their Hoping fides, 
Caftle About the middle is Caftle Urqhtiart, a fortrefs 

Ur^huan, founded on a rock projecting into the lake, and 
was faid to have beei* the Teat of the once powerful! 
Cummins. Near it is the broadeft part of the 
Lough, occafioned by a bay near the caftle. 

Above is Glen-Morijlon^ and eaft of that Straith- 
Clas, or the Chifokis country ; in both of which 

' * It IS to me matter of furprlze tliat no mention is made, in 

the Poems oi Ojjian, of our greater hearts of prey, which muft 
have abounded in his days ; for the Wolf wai a pert to the coun> 
try fo late as the reign of Queen EUzabcthy and the Bear ex- 
iltcd there at Icll Lill the year 1057, wlien ^Gordon, for killing 
a fierce Bear, was dircdcd by King Malcolm III. to carry 
three Dears heads in his banner. Other native animals arc 
cften mcniioncd in fevcral parts of the work ; and in the five 
little poems on night, compofitions of as many Bards, every 
modern Bniijh beart of chace ib enumerated, the howling Dog 
and howling Fox defcribtd ; yet the howling Wolf omitted, 
%H-hich would have made the Bards night much more hideous. 


I N S C O T L A N D. i8i 

are forefts of pines, where that rare bird the Cock 
of the Wood is ftill to be met with. At Clerj" 
Morijton is a manufaftnre of linnen, where forty 
girls at a time are taught for three months to fping 
and then another forty taken in : there are befides 
fix looms, and all fupported out of the forfeited 

Above is the great mountain Meal Fourvounkh^ 
the firfl land failors make from the eall fea -, on the 
top is a lake faid to be lOO fathoms deep. 

I was informed that in that neighborhood- are 
glens and cafcades of furprifing beauty, but my 
time did not permit me to vifit them. 

Dined at a poor inn near the Generars Huty or 
the place where General IVnde refided when he in- 
fpecled the great work of the roads, and gave one 
rare example of making the foldiery ufefull in time 
of peace. Near is a fine glen covered at the bot- 
tom with wood, through v/hich runs a torrent rifing 
fouthward. The country alfo is prettily varied v/ith 
woods and corn-fields. 

About a mile farther is the fall of Fyers, a vaft pall of A 
catara6t, in a darkfome glen of a ftupendous depth; 
the water darts far beneath the top thro' a narrow 
gap between two rocks, then precipitates above 
forty feet lower into the bottom of the chafm, and 
the foam, like a great cloud of fmoke, ri(es and 
fills the air. The fides of this glen are vaft pre- 
cipices mixed with trees over-hanging the water, 
through which, after a fhort fpace, the waters dif- 
charge themfelves into the lake. 

About half a mile fouth of the firfl fall is ano- 
N 3 ther 


:iSz A TOUR 

ther pafTing through a narrow chafm, whofe fides 
it ha^ undermined for a confiderable way : over the 
gap is a true Alp'me bridge of the bodies of trees 
covered with fods, froni whofe middle is an awe- 
full view of the water roaring beneath. 

At the fall of Fyers the road quits the fide of the 
lake, and is carried for fome fpace through a fmall 
vale on the fide of the river Fyers, where is a mix- 
ture of fmall plains of corn and rocky hills. Then 
fucceeds a long and dreary moor, a tedious afcent 
up the mountain See-ivhinniny or Cummitis Seat, 
whofe fummit is of a great height and very craggy.- 
Defcend a fteep road, leave on the right Lough- 
^p.arf^ a fmall irregular piece of water, decked 
with little wooded ifles, and abounding with Char. 
After a fecond fteep defcent, reach 

VoriAugufius. fort Jugujlus *, a fmall fortrefs, feated on a 
plain at the head o( Lough -Nefs^ between the rivers 
'Taarf and Oich \ the lafl is confiderable, and has 
over it a bridge of three arches. The fort confifts 
of four bafi;ions ; within is the Governor's houfe, 
and barracks for 400 men : it was taken by the 
Rebels in 1746, who immediately dcferted it, after 
dcmolifhing as much as they could. 

l»Hgh-h'f/s. Lough-Nefs is twenty-two miles in length ; the 

breadth from one to two miles, except near Caftlc 

Urqhuarfy where it fwells out to three. The depth 

is very great •, oppofite the rock called the Horfe- 

JhoCy near the weft end, it lias been found to be 

• Its Erfe name Is Kil-ivhinnin, or the burial-place of the 
Cummins. Jt lies on the road to the Iflc of Sire, which is about 
5 2 niilcs ofF ; but on the whole way there is not a place fit for 
the reception of man or horfe. 

J 40 

I N S G O T L A N D. 1S3 

140 fathoms. From an eminence near the fort is 
a full view of its whole extent, for it is perfedlly 
ftrair, running from eafl to weft, with a point to 
the fouth. The boundary from the fall of Fyers is 
very fteep and rocky, which obliged General fF^de 
to make that detour from its banks, partly on ac- 
count of the expence in cutting through fo much 
folid rock, partly through an apprehenfion that in 
cafe of a rebellion the troops might be deftroyed in 
their march, by the tumbling down of flones by 
the enemy from above : befides this, a prodigious 
arch muft have been flung over the Glen of Fyers. 

This lake, by reafon of its great depth, never Never freezes 
freezes, and during cold weather a violent fteam 
fifes from it as from a furnace. Ice brought from 
other parts, and put into Lough-Nefs, inftantly 
thaws ; but no water freezes fooner than that of the 
lake when brought into a houfe. Its water isefteemed 
very falubrious •, fo that people come or fend thirty 
miles for it : old Lord Lo'uat in particular made 
conftant ufe of it. But it is certain, whether it be 
owing to the water, or to the air of that neighbor- 
hood, that for feven years the garrifon of Fort ^«- 
gujlus had not loft a fingle man. 

The fifti of this lake are Salmon, which are in 
ieafon from Chrijimas to AUdfummer, Trouts of 
about 2 lb. weight. Pikes and Eels. During win- 
ter it is frequented by Swans and other wild fowls. 

The greateft rife of water in Lougb-Nefs is four- 
teen feet. The lakes from whence it receives its 
fupplies are Lough-Oich^ Lough-Garrie-> and Lough- 
^icb. There is but very little navigation on it ; 

N 4 the 

i84 A T O U R 

the only vcflel is a gaily belonging to the fort, to 
hrfiig the flores from tlie eafl end, the river Nefi 
being too fhallovv for navigation. 
Its agitations jc js violently agitated by the winds, and at times 
the waves are quite mountainous. November ill, 
1 755, at the fame time as the earthquake at Lifborti 
thefe waters were afrccfled in a very extraordinary 
manner : they rofe and flowed up the lake from 
eaft to weft with vaft impetuofity, and were carried 
above 200 yards up the river Oich, breaking on 
its banks in a wave near three feet high -, then 
continued ebbing and flowing for the fpace of an 
hour : but at eleven o'clock a wave greater than 
any of the reft came up the river, broke on the 
north fide, and overflowed the bank for the extent 
of 30 feet. A boat near the GerieraPs Hut, loaden 
with brufli-wood, was thrice driven alhore, and 
twice carried back again ; but the laft time, the 
rudder was broken, the wood forced out, and the 
boat filled with water and left on Ihore. At the 
fame time, a little ifle, in a fmall lough in Badeuochy 
was totally reverfed and flung on the beach. But. 
at both thefe places no agitation was felt on land. 
cjp^ ^ Rode to the caftle oiTor-down, a rock two miles 

CaftleofT<;r- ^^^ft of Fort Au^ujlus : on the fummit is an antient 
**■"''*• fortrefs. The face of this rock is a precipice i on 

the accefllble fide is a ftrong dyke of loofe ftones ; 
above that a ditch, and a little higher a terrafs fup- 
ported by ftones : on the top a fmall oval area, 
hollow in the middle: round this area, for the 
depth of near twelve feet, are a quantity of ftones 
iliangcly cemented with almoft vitrified matter, arid 

I N S C O T L A N D. 1E5 

in fome places quite turned into black fcoria : the 
ftones were generally granite mixed with a few grit- 
ftones of a kind not found nearer the place than 40 
mile?. Whether this was the antient fitc of fome 
forge, or whether the ftones which form this for- 
trefs * had been colledled from the ftrata of fome 
Vulcano, (for the veftiges of fuch are faid to have 
been found in the Highlands) I Tubmit to farther 

From this rock is a view of Ben-ki^ a vafl craggy 
mountain above GIen-Gar?'ie's country. Towards 
the fouth is the high mountain Coryarich : the afcent 
from this fide is nine miles, but on the other the de- 
fcent into Badenoch is very rapid, and not above 
one, the road being, for the eafe of the traveller, 
cut in a zigzag faihion. People often perifh on the 
fummit of this hill, which is frequently vifited dur- 
ing winter with dreadfull ftorms of fnow. 

After a {hort ride weftward along the plain, reach Sipt. 2. 
Lough-Oich, a narrow lake ; the fides prettily in- 
dented, and the water adorned with fmall wooded 
ifles. On the (hore is Gkn-Garrie^ the feat of Mr. Okn-Garm, 
McDonald, almoft furrounded with wood, and not 
far diftant is the ruin of the old caftle. This lake 
is about four miles long *, the road on the fouth 
fide is excellent, and often carried through very 
pleafant woods. 

After a fmall interval arrive on the banks of 
l^ough'Lochy^ a fine piece of water, fourteen miles Lcugh-Uchy, 
long, and from one to two broad. The diftant 

• r was informed that at^ri/aig is an old caftle formed of 
the fame materials, 


iS^ A T O U R 

mountains on the north were of an immenfe height ; 
thole on the fouth had the appearance of tine Hicep- 
•walks. The road is continued on the fide of the 
lake about eight miles. On the oppofite Ihore was 
Cameron of Achnacarric^ once the feat of Cameron of Lochiel, 
Lochid. but burnt in 1746. He was efleemed by all par- 

ties the honefteft and mod fenfible man of any that 
embarked in the pernicious and abfurd attempt of 
that and the preceding year, and was a melancholy 
inftance of a fine underftanding and a well-intend- 
/ ing heart, over-powered by the unhappy preju- 
dices of education. By his influence he prevented 
the Rebels from committing feveral excefiies, and 
even faved the city of Glafgow from being plun- 
dered, when their army returned out of England^ 
irritated with their difappointment, and enraged 
^ . at the loyalty that city had fliewn.^Thc Preten- 

der came to him as foon as ever he landed. Lochiel 
feeing him arrive in fo wild a manner and fo un- 
fupported, entreated him to defift from an enter- 
prize from which nothing but certain ruin could 
refult to him and his partizans. The Adven- 
turer grew warm, and reproached Lochiel with a 
breach of promife. This affefled him fo deeply, 
that he inftanriy went and took a tender and moving 
leave of his la^ly and family, imagining he was on 
the point of parting with them for ever. The in- 
come of his eftate was at that time, as I was told, 
not above 700I. fer ann. yet he brought fourteen 
hundred men into the fitld. 

The waters of this lake form the river Lochy^ 

and difcharge themfelves into the weftern fea, as 

4 thof« 

I N S C O T L A N D. 187 

thofe o^Lougb-Oich do through Lough-Nefs into the 
eailern. About the beginning of this lake enter 
Lochaber * ; ftop at Low-bridge, a poor houfe-, tra- Lochaher, 
vcl over a black moor for fome miles ; fee abun- 
dance of cattle, but fcarce any corn. Crofs 

High-bridge, a fine bridge of three arches flung 
over the torrent Specn, founded on rocks ; two of t 

the arches are 95 feet high. This bridge was built 
by General Wade, in order to form a communica- 
tion with the country. Thefe publick works were 
at firft very difagreeable to the old Chieftains, and 
leflened their influence greatly ; for by admitting 
flrangers among them their clans were taught that 
the Lairds were not the firfl: of men. But they had ' 
another reafon much more folid; Lochaber had been 
a den of thieves ; and as long as they had their 
waters, their torrents and their bogs, in a ftate of 
nature, they made their excurfions, could plunder 
and retreat with their booty in full fecurity. So 
weak were the laws in many parts oi North Britain, 
till after the late rebellion, that no ftop could be 
put to this infamous pradice. A contribution, 
called the Black-maiU was raifed by feveral of thefe Blad-maiL 
plundering chieftains over avafl: extent of country : 
whoever payed it had their cattle enfured, but thofe 
who dared to refufe were furc to fufi^er. Many of 
thefe free-booters were wont to infert an article, by 
which they were to be releafed from their agree- 
ment, in cafe of any civil commotion : thus, at the 
breaking out of the laft rebellion, a IVVGregor f , 

* So called from a lake not far from Fort William, near 
whofe banks Banqiio was faid to have been murthered. 
■(■ Who affumed the name of Graham, 



who had with the (Iridefl: honor (till that event) 
prefcrved his friends cattle, immediately fent them 
word, that from that time they were out of his 
proteftion, and muft now take care of themfelves. 
Barrifdale was another of this clafs, chief of a band 
of robbers, who fpread terror over the whole coun- 
try: but the Highlanders at that time efteemed the 
open theft of cattle, or the making a fpreith (as 
they called it) by no means di(honorable ; and the 
young men confidered it as a piece of gallantry, 
by which they recommended themfelves to their 
miftrefles. On the other fide there was often as 
much bravery in the purfuers; for frequent battles 
enfued, and much blood has been fpilt on thofe 
occafions. They alfo (hevved great dexterity in 
tracing the robbers, not only through the boggy 
land, but over the firmeft ground, and even over 
places where other cattle had pafled, knowing well 
how to diflinguilh the fteps of thofe that were wan- 
dering about from thofe that were driven haftily 
away by the Free-booters. 

From the road had a diflaiit view of the moun- 
tains of Arifaigi beyond which were Moydart^ Kin- 
loch, &c. At the end of Lough Shiel the Pretender 
firfl fet up his ftandard in the wildefl: place that 
imagination can frame : and in this fequeftered 
fpot amidft antient prejudices, and prevaling ig- 
norance of the blefTings of our happy conftitution, 
the flrength of the rebellion lay. 

Pafs by the fide of the river Lochy^ now confi- 
Inverlochy. dtrablc. Scc hvcrkchy Cajlle with four large round 


I N S C O T L A N D. i8^ 

towers *, which, by the mode of building, fcems to 
have been the work of the Englijh., in the time of 
Edward 1. who laid large fines on the Scotch Barons 
for the purpofe of erefting new caftles. Reach 

Fort IFiiliar/i, built in King IVilUam's reign ; 
as was a fmall town near it, called Mary- 
ioroughi in honor of his Queen ; but prior to that, 
had been a fmall fortrefs, creeled by General Monky 
with whofe people the famous Sir Ewen Ca- 
tmron f had numerous contefls. The prefent fort 
is a triangle, has two baftions, and is capable of 
admitting a garrifon of eight hundred men. It was 
well defended againft the Rebels in 1746, who 
raifed the fiege with much difgrace. The fort lies 
on a narrow arm of the fea, called Lcch-yelly which 
extends fome miles higher up the country, making 
a bend to the north, and extends likewife weftward 
towards the ifle of Mull, near twenty-four ScotcJs 

This fort«on the weft, and Fort Augujius in the 
centre, and Fort George on the cafl, form what is 
called the chain, from fea to fea. This fpace is The Chain, 
called Glen-more, or the great Glen, which, includ- 
ing water and land, is almofl: a level of feventy 

* The largeft is called Cummin's tower. Thefe towers (6 
greatly refemble thofe built by the fame monarch in Nor(/j 
Wales, that I fcarce hefitate to attribute this caftle to him. 
By feveral accounts it appears that there had been a caftle on 
the fame fpot, built nnany centuries prior to this ruin ; and 
it is alfo alTerted, that the league, between Charkmagne and 
Achaius^ King of Scotland, was figned by the latter in it. 

t Who is faid to have killed the laft Wolf in Scotland^ 
about the year 16S0. 


15<J A T O U R 

miles. There is, in fafl, but little land, but what 
is divided by firth, lough, or river -, except the 
two miles which lie between Lough Oicb and Lough 
Lochy. By means of Fort George^ all entrance up 
the Firth towards Invernefs is prevented. Fort Au- 
gujlus curbed the inhabitants midway, and Fort 
fFilliam is a check to any attempts on the weft. 
Detachments are made from all thefe garrifons to 
Invernefs y Bernera barracks oppofite to the IHc of 
Skie, and Caflle Ducirt in the Ifle oi Mull f. Other 
fmall parties are alfo fcattered in huts throughout 
the country, to prevent the ftealing of cattle. 

Fort William is furrounded by vaft mountains, 
which occafion almoft perpetual rain : the loftieft 
Bencvtjb, are on the fouth fide •, Benevijh foars above the reft, 
and ends, as I was told, in a point, (at this time 
concealed in mift) whofe height from the fea is faid 
to be 1450 yards. As an antient Briton, I lament 
the difgrace of Snoicdon ; once efteemed the higheft 
hill in the ifland, but now muft yield the palm to a 
Caledonian mountain. But I have my doubts whe- 
ther this might not be rivaled, or perhaps furpaflcd 
by others in the fame country ; for example, Ben y 
hourd^, a central hill, from whence to the fea there 
is a continued and rapid dcfcent of feventy miles, 
as may be feen by the violent courfe of the Dee to 
Aberdeen. But their height has not yet been taken, 
which to be done fairly muft be from the fea. 

■\ I was informed that coal has been lately difcovered in 
this ifland. What advantage may not this prove, in eftablifh- 
ments of manufadures, in a country juft rouzed from the 
kp of indolence ! 


I N S C O T L A N D. t^i 

BeneviJIji as well as many others, harbour fnow 
throughout the year. 

The bad weather which reigned during my ftay 
in thefe parts prevented me from vifiting the cele- 
brated parallel roads in Glen-Roy, As I am unable 
to fatisfy the curiofity of the Reader from my own 
obfervation, I (hall deliver in the Appendix * the 
informations I could colled: relating to thefe amaz- 
ing works. 

'The great produce of Lochaher is cattle : that Trade of 
diftrifl alone fends out annually 30CO head j but if Lochaher, 
a portion of Invernefsjhire is included, of which this j 
properly is part, the number is 10,000. There are : 
alfo a few horfes bred here, and a very few fheep; i 
but of late feveral have been imported. Scarce / 
any arable land, for the excefllve wet which reigns'"^ 
here almofl totally prevents the growth of corn, 
and what little there is fit for tillage fets at ten 
Ihillings an acre. The inhabitants of this diftrift 
are therefore obliged, for their fupport, to import 
fix thoufand bolls of oatmeal annually/ which coft 
about 4000I. the rencs are about 3000!. per ami, 
the return for their cattle is about 7500I. the horfes 
may produce fome trifle: ; fo that the tenants mufl 
content themfelves with a very fcanty fubfiftence, 
without the profpeft of faving the left againft un- 
forefeen accidents. The rage of raifino rents has 
reached this diftant country : in England there may 
be reafon for it, (in a certain degree) where the 
value of lands is encreafed by acceflion of com- 
merce, and by the rife of the price of provifions ; 

• //■*. III. 


192 A T O U R 

but here (contrary to all policy) the g;reat men b;- 
gin at the wrong end, with fqiieezing the bag, 
before they have helped the poor tenant to fill it, 
by the introdudlion of manufadtures. In many 
of the ifles this already (hews its unhappy efFeft, 
and begins to depopulate the country, for numbers 
of families have been obliged to give up the ilrong 
attachment the Scots in general have for their coun- 
try, and to exchange it for the wilds of jdmerica. 

The houfes of the peafants in Lochaber are the 
mod wretched that can be imagined -, framed of 
upright poles, which are wattled; the roof is 
formed of boughs like a wig'iuam, and the whole is 
covered with fods •, fo that in this moid climate 
their cottages have a perpetual and much finer 
verdure than the reft of the country. 

Salmons are taken in thefe parts as late as May ; 
about s<^ tuns are caught in the feafon. Thefe fiOi 
never appear fo early on this coaft as on the eaftern. 

Phinocs are taken here in great numbers, 1500 
having been taken at a draught. They come in 
Aii^ujl and difappear in November. They are about 
a foot long, their color grey fpottcd with black, 
their fleQi red ; rife eagerly to a fly. The fifliermen 
fuppofe them to be the young of what they call a 
great Trout, weighing 30 lb. which I fuppofe is the 
Grey *. • . 

Sept. 4. _ Left Fori TVilliamy and proceeded fouth along \ 
the military road on the fide of a hill, an awcfuU 
height above Loch-Leven f, a branch of the fea, fo 

* Br. Zool. III. 248. 

f The country people have a moll fuperftitious defire of 
being buried in the little iflc of Mfl«, in this Lough. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 193 

narrow as to have only the appearance of a river, 
bounded on both fides with vaft mountains, among 
whofe winding bottoms the tide rolled in with fo- 
lemn majefty. The fcenery begins to grov/ very 
romantic ; on the weft fide are fome woods of birch 
and pines : the hills are very lofty, many of them 
taper to a point, and my old friend, the lare worthy 
Bifliop Poccck, compared the fhape of one to mount 
Tabor. 'Beneath them is Glen-Co, infamous for the Gkn-Qd 
maffacre of its inhabitants in 1691, and celebrated 
for having (as fome afiert) given birth to OJlan ; 
towards the north is Morvan., the country of his 
hero Fingal.^, 

Leave on the left a vaft cataraft, precipitating 
itfelf in a great foaming fheet between two lofty 
perpendicular rocks, with trees growing out of the 
fifiures, forming a large ftream, called the water of 

Breakfaft at the little village of Kinloch-Leven on Kinkd-Le^ 
moft excellent minced flag, theonly form I thought '^^'^' 
that animal good in. 

Near this village is a fingle farm fourteen miles 
long, which lets for only 35I. per ann. and from 
the nature of the foil, perhaps not very cheap. 

Saw here a ^ern^ a fort of portable mill, made a Quern* 
of two {tones about two feet broad, thin at the 
edges, and a little thicker in the middle. Li the 
centre of the upper (tone is a hole to pour in the 
corn, and a peg by way of handle. The whole is 
placed on a cloth •, the grinder pours the corn into 
the hole with one hand, and with the other turns 
round the upper (tone with a very rapid motion, 

O while 

194 A T O U R 

wliilc the meal runs out at the fides on the cloth. 
This is rather prelerved as a curiofity, being much 
out of ufe at prefent. Such are fuppofcd to be the 
fame with what are common among the McorSt 
being the fimple fubflitute of a mill. 

Immediately after leaving Kitiloch-Levcn the 
mountains fear to a far greater height than before ; , 
the fides are covered with wood, and the bottoms 
of the glens filled with torrents that roar amidll 
the loofe ftones. After a ride of two miles begin 
The Hack to afcend the black mountain, in Argykfiire, on a 
mountatn. ^^^^ road, which continues about three miles al- 
mofl: to the fummit, and is certainly the highefl: 
publick road in Great Britain, On the other fide 
the defcent is fcarce a mile, but is very rapid down 
a zigzag way. Reach the King's houfe, feated in a 
plain: it was built for the accommodation of His 
Majefty's troops, in their march through this defo- 
late country, but is in a manner unfurniflied. 

Pafs near Lot'gh-T'ulla, a long narrow piece of 
water, with a fmall pine-wood on its fide. A few 
weather-beaten pines and birch appear fcattered up 
and dov/n, and in all the bogs great numbers of 
roots» that evince the foreft that covered the coun- 
try within this half century, Thefe were the lafl: 
pines which I faw growing fpontaneouny in North 
Pine forcfls. Britain. Hiht pine-forefls are become very rare: 
I can enumerate only thofe on the banks of 
Lough- Raynach, at Invercauld, and Brae mar ; at 
Coygach and Dirry-Mojiach : the firfl: in Straith- 
navern, the lafl in Sutherland. Thofe about Lough- 
Loyn^ Gkn'MorijloUi and Straith-Clas ; a fmall one 


I N S C O T L A N D. 19^ 

near Lcugh-GarriCy another near Loiigh-Arkig, and 
a few fcattered trees above Kinloch- Leven^ all in 
Invernefsjhire •, and 1 was alfo informed that there 
are very confiderable woods about Cajlle Grant^ I 
faw only one fpecies of Pine in thofe I vifited i nor 
could I learn whether there was any other than what 
is vulgarly called the Scotch Fivy whofe fynonyms 
are thefe : 

Pinus fyhejiris foliis hreuihus gl/iucis, corns parvh 
albentibiis. Raii hift. PI. 1401. fyn. ftirp. 
Br. 442. 
Pinus Jylveftris. Gerard's herb. 1356. Lin. fp. 
PI. 141 8. Flora Angl. 361. 

Fin d'Eccfe, ou de Ge7ieve. Du Hamel Traits 

des Arbres. II. 125. No. 5. 
Fyrre, Strom. Sondmor. 12. 
Mofl of this long day's journey from the black 
mountain was truly melancholy, almoft one conti- 
nued fcene of dufky moors, without arable land, 
trees, houfes, or living creature, for numbers of 

The roads are excellent ; but from Fort JFilliam 
to Kinloch-Leven^ very injudicioully planned, often 
carried far about, and often fo fteep as to be fcarce 
fiirmountable ; whereas had the engineer followed 
the track ufed by the inhabitants, thofe inconve-* 
niences would have been avoided. 

Thefe roads, by rendering the highlands ac-CefTi- Military 
ble, contributed much to their pfefent improvement, '^°^^^' 
and were owing to the induftry of our foldiery i 

O 2 the/ 

196 A TOUR 

they were begun in 1723 *, under the direflions of 
Gen. Wade^ who, like another HannibaU forced his 
way through rocks fuppofed to have been uncon- 
querable: many of them hang over the mighty lakes 
of the country, and formerly afforded no other road 
to the natives than the paths of (heep or goats,where 
even the Highlander crawled with difficulty, and 
kept himfelf from tumbling into the far fubjacent 
water by clinging to the plants and bufhes of the 
rock. Many of thefe rocks were too hard to yield 
to the pick-ax, and the miner was obliged to fub- 
due their obftinacy with gunpowder, and often in 
places where nature had denied him footing, and 
where he was forced to begin his labors, fufpended 
from above by ropes on the face of the horrible 
precipice. The bogs and moors had likewife their 
difficulties to overcome ; but all were at length con- 
ftrained to yield to the perfeverence of our troops. 
r\r\ fome places I obferved, that, after the manner 
of the Romans, they left engraven on the rocks tlie 
names or the regiment each party belonged to, who 
^,^ were employed in thele v/orks ; nor were they lefs 
^*^ , worthy of being immortalized than ihc Fexillafio's 
V^ of the Roman legions j for civilization was the con- 
fequence of the labors of both. 

Thele roads begin ^iDunkeld-t are carried on thro* 
the noted pafs of Ktlltcrankie^ by Blair, to Dalna^ 
cardoch, Balwhinie, and over the Coryarich, to Fort 
Jugttjtus. A branch extends from thence eaftward 
to Inverr,efsy and another weft ward, over High- 
bridge, to Fort JVilliam. I'rom the lad, by Kinloch- 

• Vide /. 84. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 197 

Leven, over the Block Mountain-, by the King's 
houfe, to Teindrum^ and from thence, by Glen-urqhie., 
to Inveraray^ and fo along the beautiful! boundaries 
of Lough-Lomond^ to its extremity. 

Another road begins near Crieff pafTes by Aber- 
feldy, crofTes the Tay at Tay-bridge, and unites with 
the other road at Dalnacardoch ; and from Dal- 
whinie a branch pafles through Badenoch to Inver- 

Thefe are the principal military roads; but there 
may be many others I may have over looked. 

Rode through fome little vales by the fide of a 
fmall river ; and from the appearance of fertility, 
have fome relief from the dreary fcene of the reft 
of the day. Reach 

I'yendrum^ a fmall village. The inn is feated the Tycndrum. 
higheft of any houfe in Scotland. The l^ay runs 
eaft, and a few hundred yards further is a little 
lake, whofe waters run weft. A lead-mine is 
worked here by a level to fome advantage ; was 
difcovered about thirty years ago : the veins run 
S. W: and N. E. 

Continue my tour on a very fine road on a fide Sept. 5. 
of a narrow vale, abounding with cattle, yet defti- 
^tute both of arable land and meadow •, but the 
beafts pick up a fuftenance from the grafs that 
fprings up among the heath. The country opens 
on approaching Glen-Urqhie^ a pretty vally, well GUnmUrqhie. 
cultivated, fertile in corn, the fides adorned with 
numbers of pretty groves, and the middle watered 
by the river Urqhie : the church is feated on a 
Hnowl, in a large ifle, formed by the river : the 
O 3 Manfe^ 

i9« A TOUR 

AJanfey or miniftcr's houfe, is neat, and his little 
demein is decorated in the moft advantageous 
places with feats of turf, indicating the content and 
fatisfaftion of the poflcrlTor in the lot Providence 
has p-iven him. 

In the church yard are feveral gravc-ftones of 
great antiquity, with figures of a warrior, each fur- 
nifhed with a fpear, or two-handed fword : on fome 
are rcprefentations of the chafe •, on others, elegant 
fret- work -, and on one, faid to be part of the coffin 
of a McGregor, is a fine running pattern of foliage 
and flowers, and excepting the figures, all in good 

On an eminence on the fouth fide of this vale 
dwells M''Nabb, a fmith, whofe family have lived 
in that humble fl:ation fince the year 1440, being 
always of the fame profefllon. The firft of the line 
was employed by the Lady of Sir Duncan Campbell^ 
v;ho built the caftle of Kilchurn when her hufband 
was on a croifade : fome of their tombs are in the 
church-yard of GY(?;;-t/;'^^;> ; the oldeft has a ham- 
mer and other implements of his trade cut on it. 
I here was favored with feveral tranflations of 
fome Englijh poetry into the.£"r/^ language, an epi- 
taph, and an elegy, to be found in the Appendix *, 
by thofe whofe turn leads them to perufe per- 
formances of that kind. After breakfaft, at a good 
inn near the village, was there prefentat achriften- 
ing, and became fponfor to a little Highlander^ by 
no other ceremony than receiving him for a mo- 
ment into my arms. 

* A'o. IV. . 


1 N S C O T L A N D. 199 

Purfue my journey, and have a fine view of the 
meanders of the river before its union with Lough- 
Aw : in an ifle in the beginning of the lake is the 
caftle of Kilchurn, which had been inhabited by the Cadle of 
prefent Lord Breadalbane's grandfather. The great 
tower was repaired by his Lordfhip, and garrifoned 
by him in 1 745, for the fervice of the government, 
in order to prevent the Rebels from making ufe of 
that great pafs crofs the kingdom : but is now a 
ruin, having lately been ftruck by lightening. 

At a place called Hamiltojt's Pafs, in an indant 
burll on a view of the lake, which makes a beau- 'Louzb-Ait 
tifuU appearance •, is about a mile broad, and fhews 
ar left ten miles of its length. This water is pret- 
tily varied with ifles, fome fo fmall as merely to 
peep above the lurface i yet even thefe are tufted 
with trees ; fome are large enough to afford hay and 
paflurage ; and in one. called Inch-hail^ are the 
remains of a convent*. On Fraoch-Elan -^-^ih^Hef' 
perides of the Highlands, are the ruins of a caflle. 
The fair Mego longed for the delicious fruit of the 
ifle, guarded by a dreadfull ferpent : the hero 
Fraoch goes to gather it, and is deflroyed by the 
monfter. This tale is fung in the Erfe ballads, and 
is tranflated and publifhed in the manner of F/;?^^/^/ 

The whole extent of Lough- Aw is thirty miles, 
bounded on the north by Lorn^ a portion of Argyle- 

* The country people are flill fond of burying here. In- 
fular interments are faid to owe their origin to the fear peo- 
ple had of having their friends corpfes devoured by wolves 
on the main land. 

f This ifland was granted by Alexander III. in 1267, to 
CillcrijT M'Nachdan and his heirs for ever, on condition they 
fiipyld entertain the King whenever he pafled that way. 

O 4 Ihire^ 

200 A T O U R 

JJj'irt^ a fertile country, prettily wooded near the 
water-fide. On the N. E. arc vaft mountains : 

Mount among them Crouachan * towers to a great height •» 

Oeuachan. \^ yiWs from the lake, and its fides are fliagged with 
woods impending over it. At its foot isthedilcharge 
of the waters of this Lough into Lougb-Etivc, an 
arm of the fea, after a turbulent courfe of a feries 
of catarafls for the fpace of three miles. At Bu- 
«..":t', near the north end, is a large falmon-fifhery ; 
alfj a confiderable iron-foundery, which I fear will 
foon devour the beautifuli woods of the country. 

Sc8//!oru.-a, ^^^^ ^y ^^o^J^'^^i a fingle houfe. Dine at the 

little village of Cladi/b About two miles hence, 
on an eminence in fight of the convent on Itjch-haily 
is a fpot, called Croifch an TJleachd., or the crofs of 
bowing, becaufe, in PopiJJj times, it was always 
cuftomary to kneel or make obeilance on firll fight 
of any confecrated place "f. 

Pafs between hills finely planted with feveral forts 
of trees, fuch as IFeymouth pines, &c. and after a 
piduref'que ride, reach 

Inveraray, ' Inveraray -, the cadle the principal feat of the 

Dukes of -r^r^jiV, chief of the C^w/)/'t//j; was built by 
Duke Archibald-y is quadrangular with around tower 
at each corner, and in the middle rifes a fquarc one 
glazed on every fide to give light lo the Itaircafe 
and galleries, and has from without a m.oll dif- 
agrccable efi^rd. In the attic ftory arc eighteen 

• Or the Great Heap. 

t Druidical llonci and temples arc called Clachan, churches 
liaving oftrii been built on fuch places : to go to Clachan is a 
coinmon Erfe phrafc forgoing to church. 



good bed-chambers : the ground-floor was at this 
time in a manner unfurnilhed, but will have feveral 
good apartments. The caftle is built of a coarle 
lapis ollaris, brought from the other fide of Lough- 
Fine, and is the fame kind with that found in Nor- 
way, of which the Kmg of Denmark's palace at 
Copenhagen is built. Near the new cattle are fome 
remains of the old. 

/This place will in time be very magnificent; 
but at prefent the fpace between the front and the 
water is difgraced with the old town, compofed of 
the moft wretched hovels that can be imagined. 
The founder of the caftle defigned to have built a 
new town on the weft fide of the little bay the houfe 
ftands on : he finifhed a few houfes, a cuftom- 
houfe, and an excellent inn : his death interrupted 
the completion of the plan, which, when brought 
to perfeftion, will give the place a very different 
appearance to what it now bearsy 

From the top of the great rock Duniquaich is a 
fine view of the caftle, the lawn fprinkled with fine 
trees, the hills covered with extenfive plantations, 
a country fertile in corn, bordering the Lough, 
and the Lough itfelf covered with boats. The 
trees on the lawn about the caftle are faid to have 
been pknted by the Earl of Argyle : they thrive 
greatly •, for I obferved beech from nine to twelve 
feet and a half in girth, pines nine, and a lefler 
maple between feven and eight. 

But the bufy fcene of the herring-fifliery gave 

no fmall improvement to the magnificent environs 


202 A T O U R 

o^ Inveraray. Every evening * fonie hundreds of 
boats in a manner covered the furface ot Lough' 
Fine^ an arm of tlie Tea, which, from its narrow- 
nels and from the winding of its ihores, has all 
the beauties of a frefli- water lake : on the week- 
days, the chearfuli noifc of the bagpipe and dance 
echoes from on board r^' on the fabbaih, each boat 
approaches the land, and pfalmody and devotion 
divic!e the day •, for the common people of the 
^'''' ' north are difpofed to be religious, having the 
example before them of a gentry untainted by 
luxury and difiipation, and the advantage of be- 
ing inftrudlcd by a clergy, who are active in their 
duty, and who prefcrve reipcft, amidil all the dif- 
advantagcs of a narrow income,. 
Lcugb Fine. yj^g length of Lcttgh-Finey from tlic eaftern end 

to the point of Lamond, is above thirty Scotch 
miles; but its breadth fcarce two mcafured : the 
depth from fixty to icventy fathoms. It is noted 
Herrings. for the vall flioals of herrings that appear here in 
July and continue till January. The higheft fcafon 
is from September to Chrijlmas^ when near fix hun- 
dred boats, with four men in each, are employed. 
A chain of nets is ufed (for feveral are united) of 
a hundred fathoms in length. As the herrings 
fwim at very uncertain depths, fo the nets are funk 
to t!ie depth the flioal is found to take : the fuccefs 
therciore depends much on the judgement or good 
fortune of the fifliers, in taking their due depths j 
for it often happens that one boat will take 
multitudes, while the next docs not catch a Tingle 

• The fifhery ii cariiej uu in lii« nig lit, the herrings being 
tlicn in moiioii. 

I N S C O T L A N D. 301 

fi(!i, which makes the boatmen pfrpetually en- 
quire of each other about the depth ot their nets. 
Thefe are kept up by buoys to a proper pitch ; the 
ropes that run through them are faftened with peg>, 
and by drawing up, or letting out the rope (cifter 
taking out the pegs) they adjuft their fituation, 
and then replace them. Sometimes the fifn fwim 
in twenty fathom water, fometimes in fifty, and 
oftentimes even at the bottom. 

It is computed that each boat gets about 40I. in 
the feafon. The fi(h are either faked, and packed 
in barrels for exportation, orfold frefh to the country 
people, two or three hundred horfes being brought 
every day to the water fide from very dillant parts. 
A barrel holds 500 herrings, if they are of the bed 
kind ; at a medium, 700 : but if more, for fome- 
times a barrel will hold 1000, they are reckoned 
very poor. The prefent price 1 1. 4s. per barrel ; 
but there is a drawback of the duty on fait for thofe 
that are exported. 

The great rendezvous of veflcls for the fifliery off 
the weftern ifles is at Camheltown^ in Caniyre^ where 
they clear out on the 12th q( September, and fome- 
times three hundred buffes are fcen there at a time : 
they mud return to their different ports by January 
13th, where they ought to receive the prasmium of 
2I. I OS. per tun of herrings ; but it is faid to be 
very ill paid, which is a great difcouragemcnt to 
the fifhery. 

The herrings of Lough-Fine are as uncertain in 
their migration as they are on the coaft of fVales. 
They had for numbers of years quitted that water j 
but appeared again there within thefe dozen years. 


ao4i A T O U R 

Such is the cafe with the lotjghs on all this weflern 
coaft, not but people defpair too loon of finding 
thcmjtromone or twounfuccefsfuUtryals in the be- 
ginning of the feafon j perhaps from not adjufting 
their nets to the depth the fifli happen then to fwim 
in : but if each year a fmall vefTcl or two was fent 
to make a thorough tryal in every branch of the fea 
on this coaft, they would undoubtedly find fhoals 
of fifh in one or other. 

Tunnies. Tunnies *, called here Mackrel-Sture^ are very 

frequently caught in the herring feafon, v/hich they 
follow to prey on. They are taken with a ftrong 
iron hook faftened to a rope and baited with a her- 
ring : as foon as hooked lofe all fpirit, and are 
drawn up without any refillance : are very adivc ' 
when at liberty, and jump and frolick on the fur- 
face of the water. 

Sept. 7/ Crofil'd over an elegant bridge of three arches 

upon the Aray^ in front of the caftle, and kept 
riding along the fide of the Lough for about ittvtn 
miles : faw in one place a fhoal of herrings, clofe 
to the furface, perfcclly piled on one another, with 
a flock 'of Gulls, bufied with this offered booty. 
After quitting the water-fide the road is carried for 
a confiderable way through the bottoms of naked, 
deep and gloomy glens. Afcend a very high pafs 
with a little lough on the top. Reach the end of 
Z/<?//^Z'-Lo«^, another narrow arm of the fea, bounded 
by high hills, and after a long courfe terminates in 
the Firth of Clyde. 

Near this place fee a houfe, very pleafantly fitu- 

• Br, Zoel. illuftr. 53. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 405 

ated, belonging to Colonel Campbell, amidft plan- 
tations, with Tome very fertile bottoms adjacent. 
On afcending a hill not half a mile farther, appears 

LouGH-LoMOND. Nort h-BH tain tmy yftWhozix Review of 
of its waters •, for fo fhort a ride as thirty miles Lakes, 
prefents the traveller with the view of four moft 
magnificent pieces. Lough- Aw^ Lough-Fine^ Lough^ 
Longy and Lougb-Lomond, Two indeed are of falt- 
water •, but, by their narrownefs, give the idea of 
frefh-water lakes. It is an idle obfervation of tra- 
vellers, that feeing one is the fame with feeing all 
of thefe fuperb waters-, for almoft everyone I vifited 
has its proper charaflers. 

Lough- Leven is a broad expanfe, with ifles and 
cultivated fhores. 

Lnigh-Tay makes three bold windings, has fteep 
but Hoping fhores, cultivated in many parts, and 
bounded by vafl hills. 

Lough-Ray nach, is broad and flrait, has more 
wildnefs about it, with a large natural pine wood 
on its fouthern banks. 

Lough ^umel is narrow, confined by the floping 
fides of fleep hills, and has on its weftern limits a 
flat, rich, woody country, watered by a moft fer- 
pentine ftream. 

The Leugh of Spinie is almoft on a flat, and its 
fides much indented. 

Lough-Moy is fmall, and has foft features on its 
banks, amidft rude environs. 

Lough-Nefs is ftrait and narrow *, its Ihores 
abound with a wild magnificence, lofty, precipi- 

fo6 A T O U R , 

tous and wooded, and has all the greatnefs of an 
Jlpine lake. 

Lough-Okh has lofty mountains at a fmall dif-* 
' tance from its borders ; the fhores indented, and 
the water decorated with ifles. 

Lough-Lochy wants the ifles •, its (hores flope, and 
feveral ftraiths terminate on its banks. 

Lough- Aw is long and waving : its little ifles 
tufted with trees, and jufh appearing above the 
water, its two great feeds of water at each ex- 
tremity, and its fingular lateral difcharge near one 
of them, fufficiently mark this great lake. 
Laugh- Lough-Lomond^ the laft, the moft beautlfull of the 

Lamcnd. Caledonian lakes. The firft view of it from Tarbat 

prefcnts an extenfive ferpentine windingamidfl:lofty 
hills : on the north, barren, black and rocky, which 
darken with their fhade that contradted part of the 
water. Near this gloomy tradl, beneath Craig Rof- 
M'Cre£ors. ton, was the principal feat of the ArCregors, a 
murderous clan, infamous for excefles of all kinds; 
at length, for a horrible maflacre of the Colquhuns, 
or Cahoujis, in 1602, were profcribed, and hunted 
down like wild beads ; their very name fupprefled 
. by aft of council ; fo that the remnant, now dif- 
perfed like JewSi dare not even fign it to any deed. 
Their poflerity are Pcill faid to be diftinguiflied 
an:^ong the clans in wiiich they have incorporated 
themfelves, not only by the rednefs of their hair, 
but by their flill retaining the mifchievous ci;fpofi' 
tion of their ancefl;ors. 

On the weft fide, the mountains arc cloathed near 


I N S C O T L A N D. 207 

the bottoms with woods of oak quite to the water 
edge ; their fiimmits lofty, naked and craggy. 

On the eaft fid«, the mountains are equally high, 
but the tops form a more even ridge parallel to 
the lake, except where Ben-Lomond *, like Saul 
amidft his companions, overtops the reft. The 
upper parts were black and barren -, the lower had 
great niarks of fertility, or at left of induftry, for 
the yellow corn was finely contrafted with the ver- 
dure of the groves intermixed with it. 

This eaftern boundary is part of the Grampia?! Crampian 
hills, which extend from hence through the coun- liiUs* 
ties oi Pert hi Angus ^ Mearns, and Aberdeen. They 
take their name from only a fingle hill, the Mens 
Grampus of T^acitus^ where Calgacus waited the 
approach of Agricola^ and v/here the battle was 
fought fo fatal to the brave Caledonians, Anti- 
quarians have not agreed upon the particular fpot ; 
but the able Mr. Gordon -f places it near Comerie^ 
at the upper end of Straithern^ at a place to this 
day called Galgachan Moor. But to return. 

The road runs fometimes through woods, at 
others is expofed and naked \ in fome, {o fteep as to 
require the fupport of a wall : the whole the work 
of the foldiery : blefled exchange of inftruments of 
deftrudlion for thofe tl^at give fafety to the traveller, 
and a polifli to the once inacceflibie native. 

A great headland covered with trees feparates 
the firft fcene from one totally different. On paf- 
'fing this cape an expanfe of water burfts at once on 

• Its height is 3240 feet, 
f It in. Sept ait. 39. 


2o8 A T O U R 

your eye, varied with all the fofter beauties of na- 
ture. Immediately beneath is a fiat covered with 
wood and corn : beyond, the headlands ftretch far 
into the water, and confift of gentle rifings ; many 
have their furfaces covered with wood, others 
adorned with trees loofely fcattered either over a 
fine verdure, or the purple bloom of the heath. 
Numbers of iflands are difperfed over the lake of 
the fame elevated form as the little capes, and 
wooded in the fame manner ; others juft peep above 
the furface, and are tufted with trees ; and num- 
bers are fo difpofed as to form magnificent viftos 

Oppofite Lufsy at a fmall diftance from Ihorc, is 
a mountainous ifle almofl: covered with wood ; is 
near half a mile lOng, and has a moft fine cffed. I 
could not count the number of iflands, but was 
told there are twenty-eight : the largeft two miles 
long, and (locked with Deer. 

The length of this charming lake is 24 Scotch 
miles i its greateft breadth eight : its greateft depth 
a hundred and twenty fathoms. Befides the fifh 
common to the Loughs are Gui7iiadsy called here 

The country from Ltifs * to the fouthern ex- 
tremity of the lake continually improves •, the 
mountains fink gradually into fmall hills •, the land 
is highly cultivated, well planted, and well inha- 
bited. I was ftruck with rapture at a fight fo long 
new to me : it would have been without alloy, had 

• A tolerable inn on the borders of the lake. 


I N S C O T L A N D. iocjl 

it not been daflied with the uncertainty whether 
the mountain virtue, hofpitality, would flourifh 
with equal vigor in the fofter fcenes I was on the 
point of entering on ; for in the Highlands every 
houfe gave welcome to the traveller. 

The vale between the end of the lake and Dun- 
barton is unfpeakably beautiful), very fertile, arid 
finely watered by the great and rapid river Levin^ 
the difcharge of the lake, which, after a fhort courfe, 
drops into the Firth of Clyde hdovf Dunbariofj : 
there is fcarcely a fpot on its banks but what is 
decorated with bleacheries, plantations and villas. 
Nothing can equal the contraft in this day's journey, 
between the black barren dreary glens of the morn- 
ing ride, and the fcfc fcenes of the evening, ifl:inds 
worthy of the retreat oi Armida, and which Rinaldo 
himfelf would have quitted with a figh. 

Before I take my lad leave of the Highlands^ it Entrances 

1 , , . r ? • into the 

would be proper to obierve that every entrance into Highlands, 
them is ftrongly marked by nature. 

On the fouth, the narrow and wooded glen near 
'Dunkdd inftantly fhews the change of country. 

On the eaft, the craggy pafs of Bollitir gives a 
contracted admiflion into the Grampian hills. 

On the north, the mountains near Lcugh-Moy 
appear very near, and form what is properly ftyled 
the threfhold of the country ; and on the 

Weft, the narrow road impending over Lough" 
Lomond forms a mcft charaderiltic entrance to this 
mountainous tra6t. 

But the £r/^ language is not confined within 
thefe limits ; for it is fpoken on all fides beyond 

P thefe 

^lO A T O U R 

thefe mountains. On the eaftern coafl it begins aF 
Nairn •, on the weftcrn, extends over all the ifles. 
It ceafcs in the north of Cathmfs^ the Orkneys-, and 
the Shetland iflands * ; but near Lcugh-Loinond, is 
heard at Litfs^ at Buchanan, eail of the lal<c, and 
at Rofenetb, weft of it. 

Crofs the ferry over the Levin at Bonnal, and af- 
ter a ride of three miles reach 

Dunbar ton. Dumbarton, a fmall but good old town, feated 

on a plain near the conflux of the Levir with the 
Firth oi Clyde ; it confifts principally of one large 
(Ireet in form of a crefcent. On one fide is the 
Tolbooth, and at thcp fouth end the church with a 
fmall fpire fleeple. The waites of the town are 
bagpipes, which go about at nine o'clock at night 
and five in the morning. 

Its caHle. 'J he caflle is feated a little fouth of the town on 

a two-headed rock of a ftupendous height, rifing 
in a ftrange manner out of the lands, and totally 
detached from every thing clfe. On one of the 
fummits are the remains of an old light-houfe j on 
the other, the powder magazine : in the hollovf 
between is a large well of excellent water fourteen 
feet deep. The fides of the rocks are immenfe 
precipices, and often over-hang, except on the fide 
■where the governor's houfe ftands, which is defend- 
ed by walls and a few cannon, and garrifoned by 
a tew invalids. From its natural ftrength, it was 
in former tmies deemed impregnable; fo that the 

* In the ShfthiiJ ijlcs arc flill fome remains of the l^orft, or 
old Nirivc^ian language, 


I N S C O T L A N D. 211 

defperate but fuccefsfuU fcalado of it 157 1 * may 
vie with the greateft attempts of that icind, with 
the capture of the Numidim fortrefs, in ihtjugur. 
thine war, by Marius j or the more horrible furprize 
of Fefcaivp-^-^ by the gallant Bois-rose. 

From the fummits of this rock is a fine view of 
the country, of the town of Dunharton^ the river 
Levin-, the Firth oi Clyde-, ^^'the Glota oi Tacitus) here ^ 

about a mile broad, and of the towns of Greenoch 
and Port Glafgozv, on the oppofiie fnore. The bu- 
finefs of this country is the fpinning of thread, 
which is very confiderable. There is alfo a great Fifii? 
falmon-filhery : but in this populous country, fo 
great is the demand for them that none can be 
fpared for curing. Gil/es come .up the river in 
June, and continue in plenty about twenty days ; 
and many Salmon Trout are taken from March to 
July. PhinocSy called here Yellow Fins, come \n. 
July, and continue about the fame fpace of time as 
the Giifes : the fifhermen call them the youncr of 
fome great Sea Trout. During May, Parrs appeaj 
in fuch numbers in the Levin, that the water feems 
quite animated with them. There are befides in 
that river Perch and a few Poans J. 

Pafs by the ruins of Dunglas cadle, near the Sept. S.; 
banks of the Clyde, which meanders finely alono- a 
rich plain full of barley and oats, and much in- 

* Robert/ojt' s hiji. ScotlarJ, II. i-. cclaijo, Guforic'syYll, 

t Sully s Memoirs, Vol I. Book VI. 

X At Dunbarton I was informed by perfcns of credit, that 
Swallows have often been taken in midwinter, in a tornid 
flate, out of the fteeple of the church, and alfo out of a fand- 
t)ank over the river Endrichj near Long!; Lunoud. 

V_ 2 clofed 

«i2 A T O U R 

clofed with good hedges, a rarity in North Britain* 
At a diftancc are lome gentle rifings, interfperfcd 
with woods and villas belonging to the citizens of 

Glasgow. The beft biiilt of any modern fecond-rate city I 

ever law : the houfes of (lone, and in a good 
tafte. The principal itrect runs eaft and weft, and 
is near a mile and a half long •, but unfortunately, 
is not ftrait. The T'cJbocth is large and handfome. 
Next to that is the Exchange: within is afpacious 
room with full-length portraits of all our monarchs 
fince Jaines I. and an excellent one, by Ramfay^ of 
•Archibald Duke o^ ArgyJe, in a Judge's robe. Before 
the Exchangers a large equeftrian ftatue o'f King 
William. This is the broadeft and fined part of the 
ftreet : many of the houfes are built over piazzas, 
but too narrow to be of much fervice to walkers. 
Numbers of other ftreets crofs this at right angles, 
and are in general well built, 
.ar et- y|^^ maikct-pUces are great ornaments to this 

city, the fronts being done in a very fine tafte, and 
the gates adorned with columns of one or other of 
the orders. Some of theie markets are for meal, 
greens, fitfh, or flefli. There are two for the latl 
which have conduits out of fcveral of the pillars ; 
fo that they are conftantly kept fweet and clean. 

' Near the meal-market is a publick granary, to 

be filled on any apprehenfion of fcarcenefs. 

The guard- houfe is in the great llreer, which ii 
kept by the inhabitants, who regularly do duty. 
An excellent police is obfcrved here, and proper 
officers attend the markets to prevent any abufcs. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 213 

The old bridge over the Clyde confifls of eight 
arches, and was built 400 years ago by Bi(hop 
Rcci'y two others are now building. The tide flows 
three miles higher up the country j but at low 
water is fordable. There is a plan for deepening 
the channel ; for at prefent the tide brings up only 
very fmall velTels ; and the ports belonging to.this 
city lie fourteen miles lower, at Port Glejgow and 
Crcencck^ on the fide of the Firth. 

Near the bridge is a large alms-houfe, a vafl 
nailery, a flone-ware manufaclure, 'and a great 
porter brewery, which fupplies fome part of unin- 
dudrious Ireland. Within f ght, on the Ibuth fide, 
are collieries ; and much coal is exported into the 
lail- mentioned iuand, and into America. 

The great imports of this city are tobacco and Trade. 
fugar: of the former, above 40,000 hogfneads have 
been annually imported, and near 20,000 again 
exported into France. The manufaflures here are 
linnens, cambricks *, lawns, tapes, fuflians, and 
flriped linnens ; fo that it already begins to rival 
Manchejter^ and has in point of the conveniency of 
its ports, in refpecl to America^ a great advantage 
over it. 

The college is a large building, with a handfome College, 
front to the fireet, rcfembling fome of the old col- 
leges in Oxford. Charks I. fubfcribed 200I. to- 
wards this work, but was prevented by the troubles 
from paying it ; but Cromwel afterwards fulfilled 
the defign of the royal donor. It was founded in 
1450, by James II. Pope Nicholas V. gave the 
* The greateft cambrick manufaiflure is now at PaiJIyy a 
few miles from this city. 

P 3 i>itU, 

'H4. A T O U R 

hfd/\ bLit Bifnop 'TurnbuU fupplied the money.' 
There arc about 400 ftudents belonging to the col- 
lege, who lodiie in the town : but the Profefibrs 
have good houfes in the college. Young gentlemen 
of fortune have private tutors, who have an eye to 
their condufb ; the reft live entirely at their own 

The library is a very handfome room, with a gal- 
lery round it, fupported by pillars. That benefi- 
cent nobleman the iirft Duke of Chdndos^ when he 
vifited the college, gave 500I. towards building 
this apartm.ent. 

Meflrs. Rchcvt and Andrevj FghUs, printers and 
booklVlkrs ,to the univerfity, have inftituted an 
academy for -painting and engraving ; and like 
good citizens, zealous to promote the weltare and 
honor of their native place, have at vaft expcncc 
formed a moft numerous colIeiSlion of paintings 
from abroad, in order to form the tafte of tlieir 

The printing is a very confidcrable branch of 
bufinefs, and has long been celebrated for the 
beauty of the types and the correftnefs of the edi- 
tions. Here are pi-efervcd in cafes numbers of 
monumental and other ftoncs *, taken out of the 
walls on the Roman ftations in this part of the 
kingdom : fome are well cut and ornamented : 
moft of them were done to perpetuate the memory 
of the vexjlhitio, or party, who perforn^ed fuch or 

• Several have bcrn engraven by the artift<: of (he academy. 
The Pfovoft of the Univcifity did me the honor of prtlent- 
ing mc with :i fet. 


I N S C O T L A N D. 215 

fuch works ; others in memory of ofTicers who 
died in the country. 

The cathedral is a large pile, now divided into Churches, 
two churches : beneath, and deep under ground, 
is another, in which is alfo divine fervice, where 
the congregation may truely fay, clamavi e pro- 
fiindis : the roof is fine, made of flone, and lup- 
ported by pillars ; but the beauty much hurt by 
the crowding of the pews. Near this is the ruin 
of the caftle, or Bilhop's palace. 

The new church is a very handfome building* 
with a large elegant porch ; but the outfide is 
much disfigured by a flender fquare tower with a 
pepper-box top : and in general, the fteeples of 
Glafgow are in a remarkable bad tatle, being, in 
faft, no favorite part of architedure with the church 
of Scotland. The infide of thatjufl: fpoken of is 
mofb neatly finifhed, fupported by pillars, and very 
prettily ftuccoed : it is one of the very few excep- 
tions to the flovenly and indecent manner in which 
Prefbytery keeps the houfes of God : reformation 
in matters of religion- feldom obferves mediocrity : 
here it was outrageous j for a place of worfliip 
commonly neat was deemed to favor of popery : 
but, to avoid the imputation of that extreme, they 
run into another ; for in many parts of Scotland 
our Lord feems ftill to be worfnipped in a ftable, 
and often in a very wretched one. Many of the 
churches are thatched with heath, and in fomc 
places are in fuch bad repair as to be half open at 
top; fo that the people appear to worlliip, as the 
Druids did of old, in open temples, 

P 4 Went 

2i6 A T O U R 

Sept. io. Went to fee llamiltcn Houfe, twelve miles from 
Glafgo'-d) : rode through a rich and beautiful! corn 
country, adorned with fmail woods, gentlemen's 
feats, and well watered. Hereabout I faw the firft 
muddy in-eani fmre I had left Edinburgh ; for the 
Highland rivers running generally through a bed 
of rock, or pure gravel, receive no other teint, in 
the greateft floods, than the brown cryftalline tinge 
of the moors, out of which they rife. 
Sojhivell g.-e on the wePi, at a little difbance from the 
road, the ruins of Bothwell caftle, and the bridge, 
remarkable for the Duke of Monmouth\ vidlory 
over the Rebels in 1679. The church was collet 
giate, founded by ArchihaUY.v[\ o^ Douglas^ I39S» 
and is, as I heard, * oddly incrulted with a thin 
coat of Hone. 
Hamilton, Hamiltcn Houfe, or Palace, as it is called here, 
is feated at the end of a fmall town -, is a. large 
difagrecable pile of building, with two deep wing? 
at right angles with the centre. The gallery is of 
great extent, and furniihed (as well as fome other 
rooms) with moft excellent paintings : that of Da- 
jucl in the Lion*s den, by Rubens, is a great per- 
formance : the fear and devotion of the prophet is 
finely exprefled by his uplifted face and eyes, his 
clafped hands, his fwelling mufcles, and the violent 
cxtenfion of one foot: a Lion looks fiercely at him 
with open mouth, and fecms only reftrained by the 
almighty power from making him f;ill a victim to 
his hunper-, and the fignal deliverance of Daniel is 
more fully maiked by the number of human bones 

• Bi/hop Pocock''s matiujiript Journal. 


1 N S C O T L A N D. 217 

fcattered over the floor, as if to fhew the inftant 
fate of others, in whofe favor the Deity did not 

The marriage-feaft, by Paul Veronefe^ is a fine 
piece, and the obftinacy and refifl:ance of the in- 
truder, who came without the wedding garment, 
is ftrongly exirrefTed. 

The treaty of peace between England and Spain^ 
in the reign of James I. by Juan de Fanto%a-i is a 
good hiftorical pidure. There are fix Envoys on 
the part of the Spaniards^ and five on that of the 
Englifo, with their names infcribed over each : the ' 
Englijh are the Earls of Borfet^ Nottingham^ Be-vonr 
JhirCy Northcmptcn, and Robert Cecil. 

Earls of Lauderdale and Lanerk fettling the co- 
venant, both in black, with faces full of puritani- 
cal lolemnity. 

Several of the Dukes oi Hamilton. James Duke 
of HcmiltGnt with a blue ribband and white rod. 
His fon, beheaded in 1649. -^^^ brother, killed 
at the battle of Worcejier. The Duke who fell in 
the duel with Lord Mohun. 

Fielding, Earl of Denbigh * ; his hair grey, a gun 
in his hand, and attended by an Indian boy. The 
fineft I ever faw of Vandykes portraits : it feems per- 
fectly to fl:art from the canvafs, and the acftion of 
his countenance looking up has matchlefs fpirit. 

* The perfon who Ihewed the houfe called him governor 
of Jamaica ; but that mull be a miftalce. Jf any errors ap- 
pear in my account of any of the pidures, I flatter myfelf it 
may be excufed ; for fometimes they were fliewn by fervants; 
fometimes the owners of the houfe were fo obliging as to at- 
tend me, whomi could not trouble with a number of c[uellions. 


*iS A T U R 

His daughter, and htrr hiifband the Marquifs of 

Old Duke of Chatclbcrault, in black, with an 
order about his neck. 

Two half-lengths in black ; one with a fiddle in 
Iiis hand, the other in a grotefque attitude •, both 
with the fame countenances ; good, but fwarthy, 
miilakenly called David Rizzo's •, but I could not 
learn that there was any portrait of that unfor- 
tunate man. 

Maria Dei Gratia Scotorum Regittay 1586. j^t. 43. 
a half-length j a ftiff figure, in a great ruff, au- 
burne hair, oval but pretty full face, of much 
larger and plainer features than that atCadle Braan, 
2i natural alteration from the increafe of her cruel 
ufage, and of her ill health; yet ftill with a refem- 
blance to that portrait. It was told me here, that 
fhe fent this pi6lure, together with a ring, to the 
Duke of Hamilton^ a little before her execution. 

A head, faid to be Jnna Bullen^ very handfome, 
dreffed in a ruff and kerchief edged with ermine, 
and in a purple gown; over her face a veil, fo 
jranfparent as not to conceal 

The bloom of young defire and purple light of love. 

Earl Morion^ Regent o^ Scotland. 

The rough reformer John Knox. 

Lord Belhaven, author of the famous fpeech 
againft the union. 

Philip II. at full length, with a flrange figure of 
Fame bowing at his feet with a label and this 
moitOj Pro mcrente adjlo. 


I N S C O T L A N D. ai^ 

About a mile from the houfe, on an eminence Chatdbtraull 
above a deep wooded glen, with the Avon at its 
bottom, is Chatdherault ; fo called from the eftate 
the family once pofTefTed in France : is an elegant 
banqueting houfe, with a dog-kenncl, gardens, &c. 
and commands a fine view of the country. The • 
park is now much inclofed : but I am told that 
there are ftill in it a few of the breed of the wild Wild cattle, 
cattle, v;hich Boethius * fays were peculiar to the 
Caledonian foreO:, were of a fnowy whitenefs, and 
had manes like lions : they were at this time in a 
diftant part of the park, and I loft the fight of 

I regret alfo the not being able to vifit the falls 
of the Clyde near Lanerk^ which I was informed 
were very romantic, confiding of a feries of cata- 
rads of different heights from ten to fifteen feet, 
fome falling in flieets of water, others broken, and 
their fides bounded by magnificent rocks covered 
with trees. 

Returned to Glafgow* 

Crolfed the country towards Sterling. PafTed Sept, m- 
through the village oi KyJfitbe, noted for a viflory Kylfnhf. 
gained by Montrofe over the Covenanters. Thro* 
a bog, where numbers of the fugitives perifhed, is 
now cutting part of the canal that is to join the 

* Gignere folet ea Jyl'ua lo'vis candidijjimos in formam heonit 
jubam habentes, cat era manfiietis Jtmillimos 'verb adeo f^ros, &c, 
£>elcr. Regni Scotia^, fol. xi. 1 was a!fo informed that the 
fame kind is found in the Duke of ^eenjbury^% Park at 
Drumlanrig : but at prefent, in tio part of North BrliniH in 
an unconfined ftate. I imagine thefe to have been the fame 
with the jiibatos Bifontes of Pliny, which were found in his 
time in Germany, and might be common both to our ifland 
and the continent. 


220 A T O U R 

Firths of Forth and Ciyds. Saw the fpot where the 
battle of Banjwckhcurne vi2iS fought, in which the 
Engli/Jj under EJzvard II. had a fhamefull defeat. 
Edward was fo afllired of conqueft that he brought 
with him WiUiam Bafion, a Carmelite^ and famous 
poet, to celebrate his vidlory, but the monarch was 
defeated, and the poor bard taken and forced by 
the conqueror, invitd minerva^ to fing his fuccefs, 
which he did in fuch lines as thefe : 

Hie capita hie rapiiy hie tcrit^ kic ferity ecce dolores ; 
Vox tonat j as fonat j hie ml: •, hie luit \ arUo modo 

Hie fecat ; hie 7ieeat \ hie doeet \ hie nffcet \ ijle fu- 

gatur : 
Hie lateti hie patet ; hie premit, hie gemit ; hie fu- 


St. IsirAan. Went through the fmall town of St. Ninian *, a 
mile fouth of Sterli)ig. The church had been the 
powder-magazine of the Rebels, who, on their re- 
treat, blew it up in fuch hade, as to dcftroy fome 
of their own people and about fifteen innocent 
Sterling. Sterling and its caftlc, in refpeft of fituation, is 
a miniature of Edinburgh ; is placed on a ridged 
hill, or rock, rifing out of a plain, having the 
caftle at the upper end on a high precipitous rock. 
"Within its walls was the palace of feveral of the 
Scotch Kings, a fquare building, ornamented on 

• Apoflle of the Pi^s, fon of a prince of the Cutabrian Bri- 
lainsy converting the Puis as far as the Grampian hills. 
Died 432. 

4. thi-ce 


I N S C O T L A N D. - 221 

three fides with pillars relling on grotcfque figures 
projeding from the wall, and on the top of each 
pillar is a fiatiie, feemingly the work of fancy. 
Near it is the old parlement-houfe, avail room 120 
feet long, very high, with a timbered roof, and for- 
merly had a gallery running round the infide. Below 
the caftle are the ruins of the palace belonging to 
the Earls of Mar^ whofe family had once the keep- 
ing of this fortrefs. There are ftill the Erjkine 
arms and much ornamental carving on parts of it. 
The town of Sterlhig is inclofed with a wall -, the 
ftreets are irregular and narrow, except that which 
leads to the caftle. Here, and at the village of 
Bannockhoiirne-, is a confiderable manufafture of 
coarfe carpets. 

From the top of the caftle is by far the fineft view 
in Scotland. To the eaft is a vaft plain rich in corn, 
adorned with woods, and watered with the river 
Forth, whofe meanders are, before it reaches the 
fea, fo frequent and fo large, as to form a multi- 
tude of moft beautiful! peninfulas -, for in many 
parts the windings approximate fo clofe as to 
leave only a little ifthmus of a few yards. In this 
plain is an old abby, a view of Alloa, Clack- 
mamiarit Falkirk^ the Firth of Forth, and the coun- 
try as far as Edinburgh. On the north, the Ochil 
hills, and the moor where the ha.ti[e of DumMam 
was fought. To the weft, the ftraith of Menteith, 
as fertile as the eaftern plain, and terminated by 
the Highland mountains, among which the fummit 
of Ben-Lof}2ond is very confpicuous. 

The Sylva Caledonia, or Caledonian Foreft, begun 

a little 

222 A T O U R 

a little north of Si criifigi and pafiing through Men- 
teith and Straithcrn^ extended, according to Boe- 
ihiusj as far as y^thol on one fide, and Lccbaber on 
the other. It is very (lightly mentioned by the an- 
tients * ; but the fuppofed extent is given by the 
. Scottijh hi dorian. 
^alkirk. Lie at Falkirk^ a large ill-built towni fupported 

by the great fairs for black cattle from the High- 
lands, it being computed that 24,000 head are 
annually fold here. There is alfo a great deal of 
money got here by the carriage of goods, landed at 
Carron wharf, to Glafgow. Such is the increafe of 
trade in this country, that about twenty years ago 
not three carts could be found in the town, and at 
prefent there are above a hundred that are fup- 
ported by their intercourfe with Glafgotv. 

In the church-yard, on a plain ftone, is the fol- 
lowing epitaph on John de Graham, ftyled the right 
hand of the gallant Wallace^ killed at the battle of 
Falkirk \n 1298 ■\\ 

Here lies Sir John the Grame both wight and wife, 
AtiC of the chief reflce wit Scotland thrife. 
Ane better knight not to the world was lent. 
Nor was gude Grame of trueth, and of hardiment. 
Mente manuqut fottns, tt VALLit fidus Achates 
Conditur hie Gram US hello inter/eilus ab Angli?, 
22 JmIH. 1298, 

Near this is another epitaph, occafioncd by a 
fecond battle of Falkirk^ as difgracefull to the Eng' 

* Dy Pliny y lib. iv. f. x6. and Eumenius, in his Panegyric 
on CoiijJarttiuSy <"• 7- 

f Fought hetwecn Falkirk and Carron works, at a place 
Cilied to tli;^ Jay Graham's Moor. 

2 lijb 

1 N S C O T L A N D. j|?^ 

hjh as the other was fatal to the Scots: the firfl was 
a well difputed combat ; the laft, a pannicon both 
fides, for part of each army flew, the one weft, the - 
other eaft, each carrying the news of their feveral 
defeats, while the total deftrudlion of our forces 
was prevented by the gallant behaviour of a briga- 
dier, v;ho with two regiments faced fuch of the 
rebels as kept the field, and prevented any further 
advantages. The epitaph I allude to is in memory 
of Sir Robert Monro *, the worthy chieftain of that 
loyal clan, a family which loft three brothers the 
fame year in fupport of the royal caufe. Sir Robert 
being greatly wounded in the battle was murthered 
in cool blood, by the Rebels, with his brother Dr. 
MonrOj who with fraternal piety was at that time 
drelfing his v/ounds : the third was afiaflinated by 
miftake for ens who well deferved his death for 

• Condltur heic quod poterit mori 
RoBERTi Monro de Foulis, Eq. Bar.* 

Gentis fui Principis , 

Militutn Tribuni : 

Vita in caftris curiaque Britannica 

Honefte produfla 

Pro Libertaie religione Patriae 

In acie honeftiflime defundla 

Prope Falkirk y^;?. xviii. 1746. jEt.62., 

Virtutis confiliique fama 

In Montanorum cohortis Prsefeftura 

Qnamdiu prailium FontonjEum memorabitnx 

Perduratura ; 

Ob amiciciam et fidem amlcis 

Humanitatem clementiamque adverfariis 

Benevolentiam bonitatenique omnibus, 

Trucidantibus etiam. 

In perpetuum defideranda. 

DuNCANUS Monro de Qifdale, M. D. J?/. 59^ 

Frater Fratrem linquere fugiens, 

Saucium curans, idus inermis 

Coinmoriens cohoneftat Urnam. 


i^24r A T O U R 

fpontaneous barbarities on Highlanders approaching 
according to proclamation to furrender their arms. 

I have very often mentioned fields of battles in 
this part of the kingdom ; fcarce a fpot has efcaped 
unftained with gore ; for had they no publick enemy 
to contend with, the Scots, like the fVeiJh of old, 
turned their arms againft each other. 
Iron founde- CarroH iron-works lie about a mile from Falkirk^ 
""• and are the grcateft of the kind in Europe : they 

were founded about eight years ago, before which 
there was not a fingle houfe, and the country a meer 
moor. At prefent, the buildings of all forts are 
of vaft extent, and above twelve hundred men are 
employed. The iron is fmelted from the ilone, 
then call into cannon, pots, and all forts of utenfils 
made in founderies. This work has been of great 
fervice to the country, by teaching the people in- 
duftry and a method of fetting about any fort of 
labor, which before the common people had fcarce 
any notion of. 

Carron wharf lies on the Forib, and is not only 
iifefull to the works, but of great fervice even to 
Glafgow, as confiderable quantities of goods deftined 
for that city are landed there. The canal likewife 
begins in this neighborhood, which, when cffcded, 
will prove another benefit to thefe works. 

At a fmall diftance from the founderies, on a 
little rifing above the river Carron, flood that cele- 
Ar/hur^s O- brated antiquity called Arthur^ Oven, which the 
ingenious Mr. Gordon * luppofes to have been a 

* Itin. Stptcntr. p. 24. tab. iv. as the book is very fcarce, I 
have taken the liberty of having that plate copied into this 







.^^fittwtf Jc-f^ 

I N S C O T L A N D. 225 

faceJlum^ or little chapel, a repofitory for the Roman 
Infignia^ or llandards : but, to the mortification of 
every curious traveller, this matchlcfs edifice is now 
no more; its barbarous owner, a gothic knight, 
caufed it to be demolillied, in order to make a 
mill dam with the materials, which, within lefs 
than a year, the Naiades^ in refentment of the fa- 
crilege, came down in a flood and entirely fwept 

Saw near Calkndar-lioufQ fome part of Jnto- c „^ « 
ninus's Wall, or, as it is called here, Graham''^ Craoam't 
Dyke *. The vallum and die ditch are here very ^y^^' 
evident, and both are of a great fize, the laft being 
forty feet broad and thirteen deep ; it extended 
from the Firth ot Forth to that of Clyde, and was 
defended at proper diftances by forts and watch- 
towers, the work of the Roman legions under the 
command of Lollius Urbicus, in the reign oi Anto- 
ninus Pius. According to Mr. Gordon, it began at 
old Kirk Patrick on the Firth of Clyde, and ended 
two miles weft of Ahercorn, on the Firth of Forth., 
being in length 36 miles, 8 87 paces. 

PafTed thro' Burrowjloncfs., a town on the Firth, 
inveloped in fmoke from the great fait- pans and 
vaft collieries near it. The town-houfc is built in 
form of a caftle. There is a good quay, much 
frequented by- (hipping i for confiderable quantities 
of coal are fent from hence to Lc/fdon^ and there 

• So called from Gracant, who is fald to have firft made 3 
breach in this wall foon after the recreac of the Romans out of 
Britain. Vide Boethius^ Cxxvi. 

Q. are 


226 A TOUR 

arc bciides fome Greenlajid fliips f btlonging to the 

Th-e whole country from Falkirk for fome 
dilbnce from the Firth is very low, and in many 
places proteded from the lea by banks. I ob- 
ferved in certain places far from the water, vaft 
beds of oifter- (hells ; a mark of it having once been 
pofieft by that element. 
uT.!c"' Reach //c/j^/c^-Houfe, the feat of the Earl of 

Hopeton ; a houfe began by Sir IVilliam Bruce, and 
finifhed by Mr. Adams : is the handfomeft I faw in 
North Britain : the front is enriched with pilafters ; 
the wings at fome diftance joined to it by a beau- 
tifull colonade : one wing; is the ftables, the other; 
the library. 

The great improvements round the houfe are] 
very extenfive ; but the gardens are ftill in the old 
tafte: trees and fhrubs fucceed here greatly ; among 
others were two Portugal laurels thirty feet high. 
Nothing can equal the grandeur of the approach to 
the houfe, or the profped from it. The fituation 
is bold, on an eminence, commanding a view of 
the Firth of Forth, bounded on the north by the 
county of Fife; the middle is chequered with iOands, 
iiich as (Jai'vey, Inch Keith *, and others ; and to 


f This year the whale- fifhcry becan to revive ; which for a 
few years pad had beer. To unfuccefsfull, that fcvcral of the ad- 
venturers had thoughts of difpofing of their fliips. Perhaps 
the whales had till this year dcfcrted thofe feas ; for Marten^ 
p. 185 of his voyage to S/>if!zlergen, remarks, "That thcfc 
«' animal?, either weary of their place, or fcnfible of tlieii 
" own danger, do often change their harbours." 

• Tliis iiie is oppofite /.fi'//». By order of i4gj, 
all venereal paticnis in the nffi^hborhocd were tranfponcd 


I N S C O T L A N D. 227 

the fouth-eaft is a vaft command oi Eafi Lothian-t 
and the terminating objedl the great conic hill of 
North Berwick. 

The whole ride from Sterling to ^een*s-Ferry 
(near Hopeton-HoufQ- is not to be paralleled for the 
elegance and variety of its profpcds : the whole is 
a compofition of all that is great and beaiuifiiU : 
towns, villages, feats, and antient towers, deco- 
t-ace each bank, of that fine expanfe of water the 
Firth ; while the bufy fcenes of commerce and 
rural oeconomy are no fmall addition to the (till 
life. The lofty mountains of the Highlands form 
a diftant but auguft boundtjry towards the north- 
weft •, and the eaftern vic.v is enlivened with fiiips 
perpetually appearing or vaniihing amidft the nu- 
merous ifles. 

Pafs by ^een's-Ferry ; fall into the Edinburgh 
road, and finifh, this evening, in that capital, a 
moft agreeable and profperous Tour. It was im- 
poflible not to recall the idea of w hat I had feen ; 
to imagine the former condition of this part of the 
kingdom, nnd to compare it with the preli nt ftate, 
and by a fort of fecond-fight make a probable con- 
jecture of the happy appearance it will aiTume in a 
very few years. Nor could I forbear repeating the 

there, Ne quid detrimentl res publica caperet. It is remarkable, 
that this diforder, which was thought to have appeared ia 
Eurtpt only four years before, (hould make fo quick a pro- 
grefs. The horror of a difeafe, for which there was then fup- 
pofed to be no cure, muft have occafioned this attention to 
llop the contagion ; for even half a century after, one of the 
firit monarchs oi Europe, Francii I. fell a vidSim to it. The 
order is fo curious that we have given it a place in the zip- 
I'tndixt Nb. Y. 

Q^a ' prophetic 

228 A T O U R 

prophetvc lines * oi /iaron Hill, who feemed fcizt-J 
with a like rtverie : 

Once more ! O North, I view thy winding fhores. 
Climb thy bleak hills and crols thy duflcy moors. 
Impartial view thee with an heedfull eye. 
Yet ftill by nature, not by ctiiiure try. 
England thy filler is a gay coquet, 
Whom art enlivens, and ;eniptations whet ; 
Rich, proud, and wanton, fhe her beauty know§, 
And in a confcious warmth of beauty glows : 
Scotlund comes after like an unripe fair. 
Who fighs with anguifli at her niler's air ; 
Unconfcious, that (he'll quickly have her day. 
And be the toaft when Albion's charms decay. 

Sept. i8. After a few d.iys experience of the fame hofpi- 
tality in Edivburgh that I had met with in the High- 
lands, I continued my journey fouth, through a 
rich corn country, leaving the Pentlavd hills to 
the weft, v/hofe fides were covered with a fine 
turf. Before I reached Crooks a fmall village, 
the country grew worfe : after this it ailumed 
a Highland appearance, the hills were high, the 
vales narrowi and there was befides a great fcarcity 
of trees, and hardly any corn ; inftead, was abun- 
dance of good pafturage for flieep, there being 
great numbers in thefe parts, which fupply the 
north of England. The roads are bad, narrow, and 
often on the edges of precipices, impending over 
the river Tzvcedy here an inconfiderable llrcam. 
MorrAT. Moffat, a fmall neat town, famous for its 

• Written on a window in Nort/j Britain. 


I K S C O T L A N D. 229 

fpaws i one faid to be ulefull in fcrophulous cafes, 
the other a chalybeate, which makes this place 
much relbrted to in iummer. Doctor IValker^ mi- 
nifter ct the place, fhewed me in manufcript his 
natural hillory of the wcjlern ijles^ which will do 
him much credit whenever he favors the world 
with it. 

The country between Moffat and Lockerby is very Sipt. 19. 
good, a mixture of downs and corn- land, with a 
few fmall woods : the country grows quite flat and 
very unpleafant : but incedant rains throughout 
my journey from Edinburgh rendered this part of 
my tour both difagreeable and unedifying. Crofs a 
fmall river called the Sark^ which divides the two 
kingdoms, and enter Cumberland. 

About three miles farther crofs the EJk over a 
handfome ftone-bridge, and lie at the fmall village 
of Longtozvn, The country is very rich in corn* 
but quite bare of trees, and very flat. Near this 
village, at Netherby, are the ruins of a Reman fta- 
tion, where llatucs, weapons and coins are often 
dug up. 

Crofs the Eden to Carltjle^ a pleafant city, fur- Sept. 29. 
rounded with v/alls, like Chejler^ but they are very ^"""'i^- 
dirtv, and kept in very bad repair. Thecaftleis an- 
ticnt, but makes a good appearance at a diflance: the 
view from it is fine, of rich meadows, at this time 
covered with thoufands of cattle, it being fair-day. 
The Eden here forms two branches, and infulate* 
the ground -, over one is a bridge of four, over the 
other one of nine arches. There is befides a prof- 

a 3 peft 

230 A T O U R 

pe(5t of a rich country, and a diftant view of Cold- 
fells, Crcfs-fells, Skidda'ujy and orher mountains. 

The cathedral * is verv irnpcrfed, Croinvuel hav- 
ing pulled down part to build barracks with the 
materials. There remains fome portion that was 
buik in the Saxon timej, with very mafTy pillars 
and round arches. The reft is more modem, faid 
to have been built in the reign of Edward III. who 
had in one part an apartment to lodge in. The 
arches in this latter building are fliarp pointed: the 
eaft window remarkably fine. 

The manufadturcs of Carlijle are chiefly of 
printed linnens, for which near 3000I. per ann. is 
paid in duties. It is alfo noted for a great manu- 
la(5bure of whips, which employs numbers of chil- 

Salmons appear in the Eden in numbers fo early 
as the months t)f December and January •, and the 
London^ and even Newcajlle markets, arc fupplied 
with early fifli from this river: but it is remarkable 
that they do not vifit the FJk in any quantity till 
ylpriU notwithftanding the mouths of both thefe 
waters are at a fmall diftance from each other. I 
omitted in its j.roper place an account of the New- 
cojile fifhery, therefore infert here the little I could 
collcfl relating to it: the fidi feldom appear in the 
S'yneuW Eehrucry: there are about 24 filheries on 
the rive'-, befides a very conliderable were, and the 
whole annual capture amounts to about 36,000 fill). 

* Begun hv Waiter, deputy of thefe partr, under Willi am 
Jyu/us ; but the new choir was not ibunacd till about 1 354. 

2 I was 

I N S C O T L A N D. ^31 

I was informed that once the fifh were brought 
from Berivick and cured at Neivcifile -, but at pre- 
fent, notwithftanding all goes unuer the name of 
Newcajlle Sahnon, very little is taken there, in 
coinparifon of what is caught in the Tweed. 

The country near Carlijle confifts of fmall en- 
clofures -, but a little farther on, towards Penrith^ 
changes into coarfe downs. On the eafl, at a dif^ 
tance, are ridges of high hills running parallel to 
the road, with a good inclofed country in the inter- 
vening fpace. Above Penrith is a rich inclofed 
trad, mixed with hedge-row trees and woods. On 
the fouth weft, a profpeft of high and craggy 
mountains. After I left Lockerby^ Nature, as if 
exhaufted with her labors in the lofty hills of Scot- 
land, feemed to have lain down and repofed herfelf 
for a confiderable fpace ; but here began to rife 
again with all the fublimity of alpine majefty. ^ 

Penrith is an antient town, feated at the foot Pbnritw, 
of a hill : is a great thoroughfare for travellers ; 
but has little other trade, except a fmall one of 
checks. The church is very neat, the gallery fup- 
ported by large columns, each formed of a fingle 
ftone. In the church-yard is a monument of great 
antiquity, confifting of twoftone pillars eleven feet 
fix inches high, and five in circumference in the 
lower part, which is rounded-, the upper is fquare, 
and tapers to a point : in the fquare part is fome 
fret-work, and the relievo of a crofs. Both thefe 
ilones are mortifed at their lower part into a round 
one: they are about fifteen feetafunderj the fpace 

Qj. between 

232 A T O U R 

Sept. 21. between them is inclofed on each fide with two very 
large but thin femicircular ftones •, fo that there is 
left a walk between pillar and pillar of two feet in 
breadth. Two of thefe lefTer dunes are plain, the 
other two have ctitain figures at prefent fcarce 
intelligible *. 

Crofs the Emct^ a fmall river, and foon after the 
J^ozither^ o\tr Teem a f}\ Bridge, near which I enter 
Westmorland. About four miles farther crofs 
Clifton Moor, where the Rebels made a (hort (land 
in 1745, ^^''^ facrificed a few men to fave the reft 
of their army. Pafs over Shap Fells, more black, 
dreary, and melancholy, than any of the High- 
land hills, being not only very barren but dcftitute 
of every pidlurefque beauty. This barren fctne 
continued till within a fmall diftapce of 
Kendal. Kekdai^, a large town on the river Kent^ in a 
rich and beautifuU vale, well cultivated, and pret- 
tily wooded. Here is a very great trade in knit 
"woriled- (lockings, fome linfies, and a coarfe fort of 
cloth, called cottons, for the Guinea trade. 

Near Burton enter Lancashire. Reach its ca- 
l^ancajitr. pital, Ldncaftcr, a large and well-built town, feated 
on the Lune, a river navigable for fhips of 250 
tuns as high as the bridge. The cuftom-houfe is 
a fmall but moil elegant building, with a p-ortico 
fupported by four ionic pillars, on a beautifuU 
plain pediment. There is a double flight of Ilrps, 
^ ruftic furbafe and coins j a work that does much 
credit to Mr. GilloWi the architc6l, an inhabitant 
of this town. 

• For a further account vide /.ppendix N** VI. 



The church Is feated on an eminence, and com- 
mands an extenfive but not a pleafing view. The 
caftic is entire, the courts of juftice are held in it; 
and it is alfo the county jail. The front is very 
handfome, confifts of two large angular towers, 
with a handfome gateway between. 

Eleven miles farther is the village of Garjlang^ 
feated on a fertile plain, bounded on the eaft by 
the fells-, on the weft by Felling mofs, which for- 
merly made an eruption like that of Solway. The 
adjacent country is famous for producing the fineft 
cattle in all the county. A gentleman in that 
neighborhood has refuled 30 guineas for a three 
year old cow : calves of a month old have been 
fold for 10 •, and bulls from 70 to loa guineas, 
which have afterwards hired out for the feafon for 
30 •, fo Rotv/ithftanding his misfortune, well 
might honeft Barnaby celebrate the cattle of this 

Veni Garfiang ubi rata 
Sunt Armenta fronte lata, 
Vcni Gar/lang, ubi male 
Intrans forum befiiale. 
Forte vacillando vico 
Hue et illuc cum amico. 
In Jiivencs dorfum rui 
Cujijs cornel laefus fui, 

A little to the Eaft is a ruined tower the 
remains of Grenehau>gh caftle, built as Camhdtn 
fays, by Thomas Stanley firft Earl of Derby^ to pro- 
teft himfelf from the outlawed nobility, whole 
cftates had been granted him by Henry Wl. 

4 Haftened 


Sept. 22. 

A TOUR, &c. 

Haftencd through Prefioriy Wiggan^ Warrington, 
and Chejler^ and finifhed my journey with a rap- 
ture of which no fond parent can be ignorant, 
that of being again rcllored to two innocent prat- 
tlers after an abfence equally regretted by all 


C 235 ] 



Concerning the Conftitution of 
the Church of Scotland. 

iRefbytcrian government in Ecot^ 
land took place after the refor- 
mation of popery, as being the form 
of eccleliaftical government moft a- 
greeable to the genius and inclina- 
tions of the people of Scotland, When 
yames VI. fucceeded to the crown of 
Englaiid^ it is well known, that dur- 
ing his reii2,n and that of his fuccef- 
fors of the family of Stewart^ deligns 
were formed of altering tfie conftitu- 
tion of our civil government and ren- 
dering our kings more abfolute *, The 

* The writer mud mean ip Scotland-, for in 
England the two firlt monarchs oj ihe name feem 
only to have attempted to iupporc ihc plenitude of 
power exerted by, and delivered down to them by 
their immediate Predecefibrs, which the fcrvile 
fpirit of the prt ceding times enduied. 



efiablifhment of cpifconacy in Scot- 
land was thought to be one point 
proper in order to facilitate the exe- 
cution of thefe dcfigns. Epilcopacy 
was accordingly efiabliflicd at length, 
and continued to be the government 
of the church till the revolution, 
when fuch dcfiprns fubiiftinor no lono;- 
er, prefbyterian government v/as re- 
ftored to Scotland, It was eftabliflicd 
by adl of parliament in 1690, and 
was afterwards fecured by an exprefs 
article in the treaty of union between 
the two kingdoms of Rvgland and 
Scotland. Among the minifters of 
Scotland^ there fublifts a pcrfedt 
equality ; that is, no minifter, con* 
iidered as an individual, has an au- 
thoritative jurifdidion over another. 
Jurifdi6lion is com jic tent for them 
only when they adt in a collective 
body> or as a court of judicature : 
and then there is a lubordination of 




one court to another, or inferiour and 
fuperiour courts. 

The courts eftabliflicd by law are 
the four following, viz. Church Sef- 
lions, Prefbvterles, Provincial Svnods, 
and above all a National or General 

A Church Scfiion is compofed of 
the Minifter of the parifli and certain 
difcreet Laymen, who are chofen and 
ordained for the exercife of difcipline, 
and are called Elders. The number 
of thefe Elders varies according to 
the extent of the parifh. Two of 
them, together with the Minifter, are 
neceffary, in order to their holding a 
legal meeting. The Minifter always 
prefidcs in thefe meetings, and is 
called Moderator • but has no other 
authority but what belongs to the 
Prcefes of any other court. The 
Church Seffion is appointed for in- 



fpedling the morals of the parifhioners, 
and managing the funds that are ap- 
propriated for the maintainnnce of the 
poor within their bounds. When a 
perfcn is convided of any inftance of 
immoral condud, or of what is in- 
conliflent with his chriftian profeflion, 
the Church Seffion infilife fome eecle- 
fiaftical cenfure, fuch as giving him 
an admonition or rebuke : or if the 
crime be of a grofs and publick na- 
ture, they appoint him to proftfs his 
repentance in face of the whole con- 
gregation, in order to make fatisfac- 
tion for the publick offence. The 
hisheft church cenfure is excommu- 
nication, which is feldom inflided 
but for contumacy, or for fome very 
atrocious crime obflinately perfifted 
in. In former times there were cer- 
tain civil pains and penalties which 
followed upon a fentence of excom- 
munication, but by a BritiJIj ftatute 
thefe are happily abolifhed. Ihe 



church of Scotland addreffes its cen- 
fures only to the confciences of men ; 
and if they cannot by the methods of 
perfuafion reclaim offenders, they 
think it inconfiftent with the fpirit of 
true religion, to have recourfe to 
compuhive methods, fuch as tempo- 
ral pains and penalties. 

If the perfon thinks himfclf ag- 
grieved by the Church Seilion, it is 
competent for him to feek redrefs, by 
entering an appeal to the Prefbytery^ 
which is the next fuperiour court. In 
like manner he may appeal from the 
Pre{bytery to the Provincial Synod, 
and from the Synod to the Afiembly, 
whofe fentence is final in all eccle- 
iiaftical matters. 

A Prefbytery confifls of the Mini- 
fters within a certain diftridi, and alfo 
of one ruling Elder from each Church 
Seffion within the diftrict. In fettling 


240 A P P E N D I X. 

the boundaries of a Prcfbytery, a re- 
gard was paid to the fituation of the 
country. Where the country is po- 
pulous and champaign, there are in- 
ftances of thirty Minifters and as 
many Elders being joined in one Pref- 
bytery. In mountainous countries 
where travelling is more difficult, 
there are only feven or eight Minifters, 
in fome places fewer, in a Prelbytery. 
The number ol: Prefbyteries is com- 
puted to be about feventy. Prefby- 
teries review the procedure of Church 
Seffions, and judge in references and 
appeals that are brought before them. 
They take trials of candidates for the 
miniftry : and if upon fuch trial they 
find them duly qualified, they licenfc 
them to preach, but not to difpenfe 
the facraments. Such licentiates are 
called Probationers. It is not com- 
mon for the church of Scotland to or- 
dain or confer holy orders on fuch li- 
centiates till they be prefented to fome 



vacant kirk, and thereby acquire a 
right to a benefice. 

It is the privilege of PrefbyterieS to 
judge their own members, at leaft in 
the firft inftance. They may be 
judged for herefy, that is, for preach- 
ing or publilliing docSlrines that are 
contrary to the publick ftandard im- 
pofed by Ad of ParHament and Af- 
fembly ; or for any inftance of im- 
moral condudl, profecutions for herefy 
were formerly more frequent than 
they are at prefent ; but happily a 
more liberal fpirit has gained ground 
among the Clergy of Scotland, They 
think more freely than they did of 
old, and confequently a fpirit of in- 
quiry and moderation feems to be on 
the growing hand ; fo that profecu- 
tions for herefy are become more rare, 
and are generally looked upon as in- 
vidious. Some fenfible men among: 
the clergy of Scotland look upon fub- 

R fcriptions 


fcrlptions to certain articles and creeds 
of human compolition as a grievance, 
from which they would wiihngly be 

Prc{byterie3 arc more fevcre in their 
cenlures upon their own members for 
any inftance o[ immoral condud:. If 
the perfon be convicfled, they fufpend 
him from the exercife of his minifte- 
rial office for a limited time : but if 
the crime be of a heinous nature, 
they depofe or deprive him of his cle- 
rical character; fo that he is no long- 
er a minifter of the church of Scot- 
land J but forfeits his title to his bene- 
fice, and other privileges of the efta- 
bliihed church. However, if the per- 
fon thinks himfelf injured by the fcn- 
tence of the Prefbytery, it is law- 
ful for him to appeal to the Provin- 
cial Synod, within whofe bounds his 
Prefbytery lies : and from the Synod 
he may appeal to the National AiTem- 

4 ^^Y' 


bly. Prelbyteries hold their meetings 
generally every month, except in re- 
mote countries, and have a power of 
adjourning themfelves to whatever 
time or place within their diftricft 
they fliall think' proper. They chufe 
their own Prcefes or Moderator, who 
muft be a Minifter of their own Pref- 
bytery. The ruling Elders who fit 
in Prefbyteries muft be changed every 
half-year, or elfe chofen again by their 
refpedive Church Sellions. 

Provincial Synods are the next lljpe- 
riour courts to Prefbyteries, and are 
compofed of the feveral Prefbyteries 
within the province and of a ruling 
Elder from each Church SefTion. The 
ancient diocefes of the Bifhops are for 
the rnoft part the boundaries of a 
Synod. Moft of the Synods in Scot- 
land meet twice every year, in the 
months of April and OEiobeVy and at 
every meeting they chufc their Pra:fes 

R 2 or 



or Moderator, who muft be a clergy- 
man of their own number. They 
review the procedure of Prefbyteries, 
and judge in appeals, references and 
complaints, that are brought before 
them from the inferior courts. And 
if a Prefbytery fhall be found negli- 
gent in executing the ecclefiaftical 
laws againft any of their members, or 
any other perfon within their jurifdic^ 
tion, the Synod can call them to ac- 
count, and cenfure them as they fhall 
fee caufe. 

The General Aflembly is the fu- 
' preme court in ecclefiaftical matters, 
and from which there lies no appeal. 
As they have a power of making laws 
and canons, concerning the difcipline 
and government of the church, and 
the publick fervice of religion, the 
King fends always a commiffioner to 
reprefent his royal perfon, that no- 
thing may be enadled inconfiftent 



with the laws of the ftate. The per- 
fbn who reprefents the King is gene- 
rally fome Scots nobleman, whom his 
Majefty nominates annually fome time 
before the meeting of the afiembly, 
and is allowed a fuitable falary for de- 
fraying the expence of this honourable 
office. He is prefent at all the meet- 
ings of the affembly, and at all their 
debates and deliberations. After the 
affembly is conftitutcd, he prcfents his 
commiflion and delivers a fpeech ; 
and when they have finiflied their bu- 
iinefs, which they commonly do in 
twelve days, he adjourns the affembly, 
and appoints the time and place of 
their next annual meeting, which is 
generally at Edinburgh in the month 
of May. ^ ^ 

The Affembly is compofed of Mi- 
nifters and ruhng Elders chofen an- 
nually from each Prefbytery in Scot- 
hnd. As the number of Minifters 

R 3 and 



and Elders in a Prcfbytery varies, fo 
the number of their reprefentatives 
niufi: hold a proportion to the number 
of Miniflers and Elders that are in the 
Preibytery. The proportion is fixed 
by laws and regulations for that pur- 
pofe. Each Royal Burgh and Uni- 
verfity in Scotland has likewife the 
privilege of chufing a ruling Elder to 
the Afiembly. All eledions mufi: at 
leaft be made forty days before the 
meeting of the Afiembly. Their ju- 
rifdidion is either confl:itutiv'e or ju- 
dicial. By the firfl: they have autho- 
rity to make laws in ecclefiaftical 
matters : by the other they judge in 
rcfcrepces and appeals brought be- 
fore them from the fubordinate courts, 
and their fcntences are decifive and 
final. Oiie point which greatly em- ; 
ploys their attention is the fettle- 
nient of vacant pariflies. The com- 
mon people of Scotla?id are greatly 
prejudiced againft the law oi: pa- 


tronnge. Hence when a patron pre- 
fents a candidate to a vacant parifh, 
the parifliioners frequently make great 
dppoiition to the fettlcment of the 
prefentee, and appeal from the infe- 
riour courts to the Aflcmblv. The 
AfTembly now-a-days are not difpofed 
to indulge the parilliioners in unrca- 
fonable oppofition to prefentees. Cn 
the other hand, they are unwilling to 
fettle the prefentte in oppofition to 
the whole people, who refufe to fub- 
mit to his miniflry, becaufe in this 
cafe his niiniftrations among them 
muft be uffclefs and without tfFedl. 
The Afiem.bly therefore for the mofl 
part delay giving fentence in fuch cafes, 
till once they have ufed their endea- 
vours to reconcile the parifhioners to 
the prefentte. But if their attempts 
this way prove unfucceisful, they pro- 
ceed to fettle the prefentee in obe- 
dience to the ad: of parliament con- 
cerning patronages. Upon the whole 

R 4 it 


it appears that in the judicatories of 
the church of Scotland^ there is an 
equal reprcfentation of the Laity as of 
the Clergy, which is a great fecurity 
to the Laity againft the ufurp^tions of 
the Clergy. 

The bufinefs of every Minifter in a 
parilL is to perform religious worfhip, 
and to preach in the language of the 
country to his congregation every 
Sunday^ and likewife on other extra- 
ordinary occafions appointed by the 
laws and regulations of the church. 
The tendency of their preaching is to 
' infl-Tud their hearers in the effcntial 
doctrines of natural and revealed re- 
ligion, and ioiprove thefe inftrudions 
\\\ order tp promote the pradlice of 
piety and focial virtue. Of old, it 
was cuftomary to preach upon con- 
troverted and myfterious points of 
diviniry, but it is now hoped that 
the generality of the Clergy confinp 
2 the 


the fubjed of their preaching to what 
has a tendency to promote virtue and 
good morals, and to make the people 
peaceable and ufeful members of fo- 

Minifters likevvife examine their 
parifhioners annually. They go to 
the different towns and * villages of 
the parifh, and in an eafy and fami- 
liar manner converfe with them upon 

* I muft obferve, that Bifhop Burnet (by birth a 
Scotchman) adopted in his diocefe the zeal of the 
church of his native country, and its attention to 
the morals and good conduft of the clergy and their 
fiocks. Not content with the ufual triennial vili- 
tations, he every fumnner, during fix weeks, made 
a progrefs through fome diilridl of his diocefe, 
preaching and confirming from church to church, 
fo that before the return of the triennial vifitation 
he became well acquainted with the behaviour of 
every incumbent. He preached every Sunday in 
fome church of the city of Salijhury, catechifed, 
and inftru6led its youth for confirmation -, was moll 
vigilant, and ftrift in his examination of candidates 
for holy orders ; was an invincible enemy to plu- 
ralities, and of courfe to non-refidents ; filled his 
office with worth and dignity, and by his epifcopal 
merits, it is 10 be hoped, may have atoned for the 
acknowledged bletVi^cs in his biographical cha- 


250 A P P E N D I X. 

the eflcntial doclrines of religion. 
They make trial of their knowledge 
by putting qiieftions to them on thefe 
heads. The adult as well as children 
are catechiftd. They likewife vifit 
their parifhes and inquire into the be- 
haviour of their feveral parilliioners, 
and admonifh them for whatever they 
find blameable in their condud:. At 
thefe vif-tations the Minifter incul- 
cates the practice of the relative and 
focial duties, and infifts upon the ne- 
cefilty of the pradlice of them. And 
if there happen to be any quarrels 
among neighbours, the Minifter en- 
deavours by the power of perfuafion 
to brinp; about a reconciliation. But 
in this part of their conduct, much 
depends upon the temper, prudence, 
and difcretion of Minifters, who arc 
cloathed with the fame pafTions, pre- 
judices and infirmities, that other 
men are." 



To this fenfible account of the 
Church of North Britain. I bee leave 
to add another, whicli may be confi- 
dered as a fort of fupplcment, and may 
fcrve to fling light on fome points un- 
touched in the preceding : it is the ex- 
trad; from an anfvver to fome queries 
I fent a worthy correfpondent * in 
the Highlands, to whom I am in- 
debted for many fenfible communi- 
cations : 

*' To apprehend well the prefent 
" flate of our church patronage and 
*' mode of fettlement, we muft 
" briefly view this matter from the 
" Reformation. At that remarkable 
" period the whole temporalities of the 
" church were refumed by the Crown 
'' and Parliament ; and foon after a 
'' new maintenance was fettled for 
*' minifters in about 960 pariflies. 

* The Reverend Mr. M^Iniyre Minifter of Gleft" 

" The 


'^ The patrons of the old, fplendid 
" Popifli livings, ftill claimed a pa- 
" tronage in the new-modelled poor 
" ftipends for parilh minifters. The 
" Lords, or Gentlemen, who got from 
" the Crown, grants of the foperiorities 
^' and lands of old abbieSy claimed alfo 
*' the patronage of all the churches 
" which were in the gift of thofe 
^^ abbies during popery. The Ki7ig 
*' too claimed the old patronage of 
'* the Crown^ and thofe of any ec* 
** clejiaflic corporations not granted 
*^ away, 

" Lay-patronages were reckoned 
" always a great grievance by the 
" Church of Scotland ^ and accord - 
'' ingly from the beginning of the 
" reformation the Church declared 
" againft lay-patronage and prefenta- 
" tions. The ecclefiaftical laws, or 
^' ads of aflembly, confirmed at laft 
** by parliament, required, in order 

'« to 


" to the fettlement of a minifter, 
" fome concurrence of the congre- 
** gation, of the gentlemen u^ho had 
" property within the cure, and of the 
" elders of the parifli. 

" The Elders, or -ST/riJ-Seffion, arc 
** a number of perfons, who, for their 
** wifdom, piety and knowledge, are 
" eleded from the body of the people 
" in every parifh, and continue for 
^' life, feje he7te gere7ttibusy to affift 
" the parifh minifter in fuppreffing 
*' immoralities and regulating the af- 
" fairs of the parifh. Three of thefe 
*' men and a minifter make a quo- 
*^ rum, and form the loweft of our 
*' church courts. 

" Thus matters continued to the 
*' Year 1649, when by ad- of parlia- 
*^ ment patronages were abolijhed en- 
" tirely, and the eledion or nomina- 
" tioQ of minifters was committed Xq 

" the 


" the Kirk-S^cihon or Elders ; who, 
" in thofe dars of univerfal fobriety 
*' and outward appearance at kafl: of 
*' religion among the Prefbyterians, 
'' were generally the gentlemen oi 
" beft condition in the pariili who 
*' were in communion with the 
*' church. After the reflorotmt of 
*' King Charles II. along with epif- 
*' copacy patronages returned, yet 
** under the old laws ; and all de- 
*' bates were finally determinable by 
*' the General Affe7?ibly^ which even 
'' under epifcopacy in Scotland was the 
'' fupreme ecclefiaftic court. Thus 
*' they continued till the Revolution, 
" when the Prcfoyterian model was 
*' reftored by adt of parliament. 

" The people chofe their own mi- 
" nifters, and matters continued in 
'' this form till the year 1711, when 
" Queen A?i7ie'i miniftry intending to 
*' defeat the Ha?ioi;er fucceffion, took 



a]! methods to harafs fuch as were 
iirmly attached to it, which the 
Prefbyterian Gentry and Clergy ever 
were, both from principle and inte- 
reft. An ad; therefore was obtained, 
and which is ftill in force, reftoring 
patrons to their power of eledling 

" By this a<^ the King is now in 
polleflion of the patronage of above 
coo churches out of 950, having 
not only the old rights of the 
crown, but many patronages ac- 
quired at the reformation not yet 
alienated ; all the patronages of 
the 1^ Scots BifhopSv and all the pa- 
tronages of the Lords and Gentle- 
men forfeited in the years 1 7 1 5 
and 1745. Lords, gentlemen and 
magillrates of burroughs, arc the 
patrons of the remaining churches. 
A patron muft prefent a qualified 
perfon to a charge within fix months 




^' of the laft incumbent's removal or 
^* death, otherwife his right falls to 
*^ the Prefbytery. 

" A Prefbytery confifls of feverdl 
^^ Minifters and Elders. All parifhes 
*' are annexed to fome Prefbytery. 
*' The Prefbytery is the fecond church 
*' court, and they revife the a6ls 
" of the Kirk-SeHiony which is the 
*' loweft. Above the Prefbytery is 
" the Synod, which is a court con- 
*' fifting of feveral Prefbyteries. And 
** from all thefe there lies an ap- 
" peal to the General Aflembly, which 
" is the fupreme church court in 
** Scot/and. This fupreme court con- 
** fifts of the King reprefented by 
** his Commiflioner, Minifters from 
" the different Prefbyteries, and 
" ruling Elders. They meet an- 
*' nually at Ediiihurgh^ cnadl laws 
** for the good of the church, finally 
" determine all controverted cledtions 

'^ of 


'* of minifters. They can prevent a 
^' clergyman's tranfportation from one 
, '' charge to another. They can find 
*' a prefentee quahfkd or unqualified, 
** and confequently oblige the patron 
'^ to prefent another. They can de- 
'' pofe from the miniftry, and every 
*' intrant into holy orders becomes 
^* bound to fubmit to the decifions of 
*' this court ; which, from the days 
*' of our reformer yohn Knox^ has ap* 
*' propriated to itfelf the titles of The 


*' RExND Assembly of the Church of 
*' Scotland, 

*^ All the clergymen of our com- 
*^ munion are upon a par as to autho- 
*' rity. We can enjoy no pluralities. 
*' Non-refidence is not known. We 
" are bound to a regular difcharge of 
** the feveral duties of our ofiice. The 
" different cures are frequently vifited 
" by the Prefbytery of the bounds ; 

S '' and 



and at thcfe- vihtations flrid en- 
quiry is made into the life, doc- 
trine and diligence of the incum- 
bent. And fciT default in any of 
thefe, he may be fufpended from 
preaching : or if any grofs immo- 
rality is proved againft him, h:^ can 
be immediately depofed and ren- 
dered incapable of officiating as a 
minifter of the gofpe!. Appeal 
indeed lies, as I fiiid before, from 
the decision of the inferior to the 
fupreme court. 

" Great care is taken in preparing 
young men for the miniftry. After 
going through a courfe of philo- 
fophy in one of our four Universi- 
ties, they muft attend at leaft for 
four years the Divinity-Hall, where 
they hear the preledlions of the 
profcffors, and perform the dif- 
ferent cxercifes prefcribed them :i 
they muft attend ' the Greek, the 

'' Plebrcvv, 


'' Hebrew, and Rhetoric clailes ; and 
^' before ever they are admitted to 
*' tryals for the miniftry before a Pref- 
" bytery, they muft lay teftimonials 
'' from the different profeflbrs of their 
*^ morals, their attendance, their pro- 
'^ grefs, before them: and if upon 
" tryal they are found unqualined, 
" they are either fct afide as unfit for 
" the ofBce, or cnjoiacd to apply to 
^' their ftudies a year or two more. 

'^ Cur livings are in general from 
^' 60 to 120I. flerling. Some few 
*' livings are richer, and a few poorer. 
" Every minifter beiides is entitled to 
'' a manfion-houfe, barn and ftable ; 
" to four acres of arable and three of 
*' pafturage land. Our livings are 
'' exempted from all public duties ; 
'' as are alfo our perfons from all 
" public ftatute-works. As fchools 
" are eredled in all our pariihes^ and 
" that education is cheap, our young 
S 2 gcne- 



*^ generation is beginning to imbibe 
" feme degree of tafte and liberal 
*' fentiment unknown to their illite- 
*' rate rude forefathers. The Englifli 
*' language is cultivated even here 
** amongft thefe bleak and dreary 
" mountains. Tour Divines, your 
*' Philofophers, j<?«r Hiftorians, j'<?«r 
** Poets, have found their way to our 
*' fequeftred vales, and are perufed 
" with pleafure even by our lowly 
fwains ; and the names of T'illotfon^ 
of Atterbury^ of Clerk^ of Seeker^ 
" oi NewtoUy of Locke^ of Bacon, of 
" Ly Helton, of Dry den, of Pd?/?^, of 
" G/^;^, and of Gray, are not unknown 
*' in our diftant land." 


N UM- 



Account of the faftina Woman 
of Rofsjhire, 

Dunrobin^ Aug. 24, 1769. 

The Information of Mr. Rainy^ Mif- 
fionary - Minifter in Kincardine^ 
anent Katharine M^ Leod. 

J^Athari?ieM''Leod^ daughter to Do- 
nald M ^ Leod^ farmer in Croig^ in 
the parifli of Kincardi?ie^ Rofsjhirey an 
unmarried woman, aged about thirty- 
five years, fixteen years ago contraded 
a fever, after which Ihe became bHnd. 
Her father carried her to feveral phy^ 
ficians and furgeons to cure her blind- 
nefs. Their prefcriptions proved of 
no efFedl. He carried her alfo to a 
lady ikilled in phyfic, in the neighs 
borhood, who, doubtfull whether her 
blindnefs was occailoned by the weak-' 
S 3 nefs 


nefs of her eyc-licls, or a defect in her 
eyes, found by the ufe of feme medi- 
cines that the bHndnefs was occafioned 
by a v^eaknefs in her eye-Hds, which 
beinor flrcngrthened fhe recovered her 
fight in fome meafure, and difchargcd 
as ufual every kind of work about her 
father's farm ; but tyed a garter tight 
round her forehead to keep up her 
eye-Hds. In this condition fhe con- 
tinued for four or five years, enjoying 
a good ftate of health, and working 
as ufual. She contrad:ed another lin- 
gering fever, of which fhe never re- 
covered perfeclly. 

Some time after her fever her jaws 
fell, her eye-lids cloied, and flie loft 
her appetite. Her parents declare 
that for the fpace of a year and 
three-quarters they could not fay that 
any meat or liquid went down her 
throat. Being interrogated on this 
point, they own'd they very fre- 


qucntly put fomething into her mouth. 
But they concluded that nothing went 
down her throat, becaufe fiie had no 
evacuation ; and when they forced 
open her jaws at one time, and kept ' 
them open for fome time by putting 
in a flick between her teeth, and 
pulled forward her tongue, and forced 
fomething down her throat, fhe 
cou2[hed and firained, as if in danger 
to be choaked. One thing during 
the time fhe eat and drank nothing 
is remarkable, that her jaws were 
unlocked, and fhe recovered her 
fpeech, and retained it for feveral 
days, without any apparent caufe for 
the fame ; (he was quite fenfible, re- 
peated feveral queftions of the fhorter 
catechifms ; told them that it was to 
no purpofe to put any thing into her 
mouth, for that nothing went down 
her throat ; as alfo that fometimes fhe 
underftood them w^ien they fpoke to 
S 4 her. 


her. By degrees her jaws thereafter 
fell, and (he loft her fpeech. 

Some time before I faw her fhe re- 
ceived fome fuftenance, whey, water- 
gruel, 6cc. but threw it up, at leaft 
for the moft part, immediately. When 
they put the ftick between her teeth, 
mentioned above, two or three of her 
teeth were broken. It was at this 
breach they put in any thing into her 
niouth, I caufed them to bring her 
out of bed, and give her fomething 
to drink. They gave her whey. Her 
neck was contraded, her chin fixed 
on her breaft, nor could by any force 
be pulled back : flie put her chin and 
mouth into the difh with the whey, 
and I perceived fhe fucked it at the 
abi^ve-mentioncd breach as a child 
would luck the breaft, and imme- 
diately threw it up again, as her pa- 
rents toid me fhe ufed to do, and ihe 
endeavoured with her hand to dry her 



mouth and chin. Her forehead was 
contraded and wrinkled ; her cheeks 
full, red, and blooming. Her parents 
told mc that fhe flept a great deal and 
foundly, perfpired fometimes, and 
now and then emitted pretty large 
quantities of blood at her mouth. 

For about two years paft they have 
been wont to carry her to the door 
once every day, and fhe would fhevv 
figns of uneafinefs when they neg- 
Ie6ted it at the ufual time. Laft fum- 
mer, after giving her to drink of the 
water of the well of Strathconnen^ 
fhe crawled to the door on her hands 
and feet without any help. She is at 
prefent in a very languid way, and 
flill throws up what fhe drinks. 

N UM- 


Parallel Roads in Glen-Roy. 

LL the dcfcription that can be 
given of the Parallel Roads, or 
Terrafles, is, that the Glen of itfelf 
is extremely narrow, and the hills on 
each fide very high, and generally not 
rocky. In the face ol: thefe hills, 
both fides of the glen, there are three 
roads at fmall difiances from each 
other, and dirccSily oppofite on each 
fide. Thefe roads have been mea- 
fiired in the conipleateft parts of 
them, and found to be 26 paces of a 
man five feet ten inches high. The 
two higheft are pretty near each other, 
about 50 yards, and the lowefl: double 
that diflance from the neareft to it. 
They are carried along the fides of 
the glen with the utmoft regularity, 



nearly as exact as drawn with a line of 
rule and compafs. 

Where deep burns or gullies of wa- 
ter crofs thcfe roads, they avoid both 
the deiccnC and afcent in a very cu- 
rious manner ; fo that on the fide 
where tlie road enters thofe hollows, 
they rather afcend along the flope, 
and dcfcend the oppofite fide until 
they come to the level, without the 
traveller being fenfible of afcent or 
defcent. There are other fmaller 
glens falling into this Gle72-Roy, The 
parallel roads furround all thefe 
fmaller ones ; but where Glen- Roy 
ends in the open country there are not 
the fmalleft vefliges of them to be 
feen. The length of thefe roads in 
Glen- Roy are about feven miles. There 
are other two glens in that neighbor- 
hood where thefe roads are equally 
vifible, called Gle7t~Gluy and Glen-- 
Spean^ the former running north- 


weft and the latter fouth from Glen- 
Roy, Both thefe roads are much 
about the fame length as Glen-Roy^ 

It is to be obferved that thefe roads 
are not caufeway, but levelled out of 
the earth. There are fome fmall 
rocks, though few, in the courfe of 
thefe roads. People have examined 
in what manner they made this pafTage 
through the rocks, and find no veftige 
of roads in the rock ; but they begin 
on each fide, and keep the regular hne 
as formerly. So far I am indebted to 
Mr. Irapaud^ Governor of Fort An- 

I cannot learn to what nation the 
inhabitants of the country attribute 
thefe roads : I was informed that they 
were inacccfliblc at the eaft end, open 
at the weft, or that neareft to the fea, 
and that there were no traces of build- 
ings, or druidical remains, in any 



part, that could lead us to fufpeft 
that they were deligned for ceconomi- 
cal or religious purpofes. The coun- 
try people think they were defigned 
for the chace, and that thefe terrafies 
were made after the fpots were cleared 
in lines from wood, in order to tempt 
the animals into the open paths after 
they were rouzcd, in order that they 
might come within reach of the bow- 
men, who might conceal themfelves 
in the woods above and below. Ridings 
for the fportfmen are ftill common in 
all great forefts in France^ and other 
countries on the continent, either that 
they might purfue the game without 
interruption of trees, or fhoot at it in 
its pafiage. 

Mr. Gordon^ p. 114 of his Itine- 
rary, mentions fuch terrafies, to the 
number of feventeen or eighteen, raifed 
one above the other in the moft regu- 
lar manner, for the fpace of a mile, 




on the lide of a hill, in the county of 
l^weedale^ near a village called Ro7na7iay 
and alfo near two fmall Rofnan camps. 
They arc from fifteen to twenty feet 
broad, and appear at four or five 
miles difiance not unlike a m-eat am- 


phitheatre. The fame gentleman alfo 
has obfervxd fimilar terrafles near 
other camps of the fame nation, from 
whence he fufpeds them to be works of 
the RompMS^ and to have been thrown 
up by their armies for itinerary en- 
campments. Such may have been 
their ufe in thofe places : but what 
could have been the objedl of the 
contrivers of the tcrraffes of Glen-Roy^ 
where it is more than probable thofe 
conquerors never came, remains a 
myftery, except the conjecture above 
given fhould prove fatisfadory. 

N U M 



I. T EAGAP a Choir am beul an Anmhuin. 

Juftice itfelf melts a^ay in the mouth of the 

2. '5 laidir a ihiid, 'j anmhu'm a tBg. 

The ftrong fhall fall, and oft the weak efcaps 

3. ^S fiida Lamb an Fheumanaicb. 

Long is the hand of the needy. 

4. '5 laidir an f Anmhuin an Uchda Trebir, 

Strong is the feeble in the bofom of mights 

5, '5 maith an Sgathan Sidl Carra. 

The eye of a friend is an unerring mirror,' 

6, Cha bhi *m Bochd a fo-air Saihhir. 

The luxurious poor fliall ne'er be rich. 
% 7. Far 


7. Far tin tain" an Amhuin^ *i an as mug ha a 

Mofl (hallow mofl noify. 

8. Cha neilCleith air an OlCf ach gun a dheand. 

There is no concealment of evil, but not to 
commit it. 

9. Gthht na, Cloinne-higa, hhi *ga toiri V ga grad- 

The gift of a child, oft granted — oft recaUed. 

10. Cha neil Saoi gun a choi-meas. 

None fo brave without his equal. 

11. *S mhic a thainic Comhairl ghtic a Beul Ama- 


Oft has the wifeft advice proceeded from the 
mouth of Folly. 

I a. TuiflilichP an /' Each ceithir-chafach. 

The four-footed horfe doth often (lumble 1 
fo may the ftrong and mighty fall. 

13. Mar 


13. Mar a chd-is Duin* a B heat ha, hheir i 
Bnith air a Cho-erjhacb. 

As is a man's own life, ib is his judgment of 
the liv6s of others. 

14. Fanai' Buina flna^ re Shh, *s hheir Buiniz 
dcno dui-kum. 

The fortunate rhan awaits, and he fhall arrive 
in peace : the unlucky hafiens, and evil 
(hall be his fate. 

ji.5. Cha do chuir a Ghuala ris, nach do chttir Tuar 

Succefs muft attend the man who bravely 

16. Cha Ghloir a dhearahhas ach Gntomh. 

Triumph never gain'd the founding words of 

17, '5 trie a dh" fhas dm Fuigheal-fochaid, ^s d 
ntheith am Fuigheal-faramaid. 

Oft ha's the objedt of caufelefs fcorn arriv'd at 
honour, and the once mighty fcornei' fallerv 
down to contempt. 

T J 8. Chfi, 


1 8. Cha do deiobair Feann Rtgb nan Laoeb riamk 
Fear a laimh-deife. 

The friend of his right-hand was never de- 
ferted by Fingal the king of heroes. 

1^. tlSig Dia re b* Airc^ 's cba '» Aire nar tbig. 

God Cometh in the time of diftrcfs, and it i^ 
no longer dilVrefs when he comes. 



UNderneath this marble hearfe 
Lies the fubjedt of all verfe ; 
Sidney'^ filler, Pembroke's mother : 
Deathy ere thou haft kill'd another. 
Fair and learn'd, and good as (he, 
^ime (hall throw a dart at thee. 

Tranflated into Galk. 

AN fho na luighe fo Lic-lighe 
Ha adh-bheann nan uille-bhuadh. 
Mat hair Phembroke, Piuthar Philip : 
Ans gach Daan bith* orra luadh. 
A Bhais man gearr thu fios a coi-meas, 
Beann a dreach, fa h' Juil, fa Fiach, 
Briftidh do Bhogh, gun Fhave do fhaighid : 
Bithi* — mar nach bith' tu riamh. 

A Sailor's 


A Sailor's Epitaph in the Church-yard 
of Great Tarmouthy Norfolk 

THO' Boreas' blow and Nepluns's waves 
Have toft me to and fro. 
By God's decree, you plainly fee, 

I'm harbour'd here below : 
Where I muft at anchor lye 
With many of our fleet ; 
But once again we muft fet fail^ 
Our Admiral Christ to meet. 

Tranflated into Galic, 

LE Uddal-cuain, 's le (heide Gaoidh 
'S lionmhor Amhra thuair mi riamh ; 
Gam luafga a nul agus a nal, 

Gu trie gun Fhois, gun Deoch, gun Bhiadh. 
Ach thanig mi gu Calla taimh, 

'S leg mi m' Achdair ans an Uir, 
Far an caidil mi mo Phramh, 

Gus arifd an tog na Suill. 
Le Guth na Troimp' as airde fuaim 

Dus gidh mi, 's na bheil am choir 
Coinnich' fhin Ard-Admhiral a Chuain 

Bhon faith fhin Fois, is Duais, is Lonn. 



S A P P H 0\ ODE. 


LEST as the immortal Gods is he. 
The youth who fondly fits by thee, i£c. 

Tranllated into Galic, 

I.' A Dhmhur mar Dhia neo bhafmhor 'ta 
JlV. 'N t' Oglach gu caidreach a fliuis re d' Tqa; 
Sa chluin, fa chith re faad na huin 
Do Bhriara droigheal, *s do f hrea gradh cilln. 

2. Och : 's turr a d' fhogair thu mo Chlofs 

'Sa dhnifg thu 'm Chroidh' gach Buaireas bochd ; 
'N tra dhearc mi ort, 's mi goint Ic 'r Aadh 
Bhuail reachd am uchd, ghrad mheath moChail; 

3. Theogh 'm Aigne aris, is fliriith gu dian 
Teafgradh air feadh gach Baal am Bhiann : 
Ghrad chaoch mo (huil le Ceodhan Uain 
'S tac aoidh mo Chluas le bothar-f huaim. 

4. Chuer Fallas 'tliith mo Bhuil gun Luth. 
Bith Eal-ghris chuin tre m' fhuil gu dlu. 
Ghrad thug am Plofg a bheannachd leom 

Is fliniomh mi flieach gun'Diog am Chomm. 



EPITAPH on a Lady, in the Parifli- 
Church of Gle?iorchay^ in North-- 

1. AN (ho na luigh ta fan Innis 
Jljl Bean bu duilich leom bhi ana 
Beul a cheuil, is Lamh a Ghrinnis, 

Ha iad 'niolhe fho nan tamh. 

2. Tuiir c.ha toir am Bochd dhuit beannachd : 

An lom-nochd cha chluthaich thu nis mo' 
Cha tiormaich Dcur bho fh^il na h'Ainnis : 
Co tuiir O Lagg ! a bheir dhuit treoir ? 

5. Chan fhaic fhin tnille thu fa choinni : 
Cha fuidh fhin tuille air do Bhord : 
D'fhalabh uain fuairceas, feirc is modhan 

fia Bron 's bi-mhulad air teachd oiru. ^ 

In Englip, 

I. T G W Ihe lies here in the duft, and her me- 

X— / mory fills me with grief: filent is the tongue 

of melody, and the hand of elegance is now at refi-. 

2. No more fliall the poor give thee his blefTing: 
nor (hall the naked be warmed with the fleece of 
^thy flock. The tear (halt thou not wipe away from 
the eye of the wretched. Where, now O Feeble, 
^s thy wonted help ! 

T 3 3. Nq 


3. No more, my fair, (hall we meet thee in the 
focial hall : no more (hall we fit at thy hofpitable 
board. Gone for ever is the found of mirth : the 
kind, the candid, the meek is now no more. Who 
Can exprefs our grief ! Flow ye tears of /^ipr/ - 

A young Lady's Lamentation on the 
Death of her Lover, 

Tr^nflated from the Galic. 

GLqomy indeed is the night and dark, and 
heavy alfo is my troubled foul : around mc 
all is filcnt and flill ; but deep has forfaken my 
eyes, and my bofom knoweth not the balm of 
peace. 1 mourn for the Iqfs of the dead — the 
youngs the beauteous, the brave^ alas ! lies low — 
Lovely was thy form, O youth ! lovely and fair 
was thy open foul — Why did I know thy worth— r 
ph ! why muft I now that worth deplore ? 

Length of years feemed to be the lot of my Love, 
yet few and fleeting were his days of joy — Strong 
he ftood as the tree of the vale, but untimely he 
fell into the filent houfe. The morning Sun faw 
thee fiourifh as the lovely rofc — before the noon- 
pdc heat low thou droop'ft as the withered plant. 

V\'\\2i\.then availed thy bloom of youth, and what 
thy arm of flrength ? Ghaftly is the face of Love 

2 —dim 


— dim and dark the foul-exprefllng eye — the 
mighty fell to arife no more ! 

Whom now fhall I call my friend ? or from whom 
can I hear the found of joy ? In thee the friend has 
fallen"— in thy grave my joy is laid. — We lived— 
we grew together. O why together did we not alfo 
fall ! 

Death — thou cruel fpoilcr ! how oft haft thou 
caufed the tear to flow ! many are the mifcrable 
thou haft made, and who can cfcape thy dart of 
woe ? 

Kinfl Fate, come lay me low, and bring me to 
my houfe of reft. In yonder grave, beneath the 
leafy plane, my Love and I fhall dwell in peace. 
Sacred be the place of our repofe. • 

O feek not to difturb the alhes of the dead ! 


Order of Council relating to 
the Removal of venereal 
Perfons from Edinburgh in- 
to Inch Keith. 

"22 Sej^r. 1497. 
«' XT is our Soverane Lords Will 
" X ^^^ ^he Command of the 
*' Lordis of his Counfale fend to the 

T 4 " Proveft 


" Provefl: and Baillies within this bur 
** that this Proclamation followand be 
*' put till execution for the efchewing 
'' of the greit appearand danger of the 
V Infection of his Leiores fra this conta- 
^ ?' gious ficknefs callit the Grandgor 
" and the greit uther Skayth that may 
** qcciir tp his Leiges and Inhabitant 
" within this bur' ; that is to fay^ we 
?' charge ftraitly and commands be the 
** Authority above writtin, that all 
?' manner of perfonis being within thq 
*' freedom of this bur' quilks are in- 
?' fedit or hes been infedit uncurit 
*' with this faid contagious plage callit 
** the Grai^dgor^ devoyd, red and pafs 
^' fur' of this Town andcompeir apor^ 
f ' the fandis of Leith at ten hours be- 
" fore none and thair fall thai have and 
f fynd Botis rcddic in the havin or- 
*' danit to them be the Officeris of this 
f bur rcddely furneifl with viduals to 
" have thame to the hiche^ and thair 
f* to remane quhill God proviyd for 

f« thair 


'^ thair Health : And that all uther 
" perfonis the quilks taks upon thame 
*^ to hale the faid contagious infirmitie 
*^ and taks the cure thairof that they 
" devoyd and pafs with thame fua that 
" nane of thair perfonis qnhilks taks 
^' fic cure upon thame ufe the famyn 
*' cure within this bur' in pns nor peirt 
" any manner of way. And wha fa 
*^ beis foundin infedlit and not paiTand ' 
*^ to the Inche as faid is be Mono7tday 
^^ at the Sone ganging to, and in lyk- 
" ways the faid perfonis that takis the 
'^ fd Cure of fanitie upon thame gif 
" they will ufe the famyn thai and ilk 
'.* ane of thame falle be brynt on the 
** cheikwith the marking Irne that thai 
*' may be kennit in tym to cum and 
^* thairafter gif any of tham remainis 
" that thai fall be banift but favors/' 




Of the Columns in Penrith 
Church- Yard. 

SINCE the printing of p. 231, I 
have been favored with two beau- 
tifull drawings of the pillars * in 
Penrith Church- Yard. One was com- 
municated to me by the Rev. Mr. 
Farijh of Carlijle^ and reprefents them 
in their prefent ftate ; the other by 
the Rev. Mr. Monkhoufe^ Fellow of 
Queens College ^^ Oxford^ which is a 
view of them before they were muti- 
lated. The firft is certainly a moft 
authentic reprefentation of them ; the 
laft varies in many particulars from 
the form they now appear in : in that 
the columns are drawn entirely fquare 

* The lefTer pillar engraven with thefc is by tra-r 
dition of the country thought to belong to thefe \ 
but Mr. F^r//?; thinks it is at too great adiltance from 
them to admit of that fuppofition : its height is fix 



from top to bottom, whereas the lower 
part of the pillars now extant are 
rounded. There is no fret- work on 
the old drawing of thefe columns, but 
inflead are two fmall rude figures of 
human heads. The thin femicircular 
ftones are deeply and regularly in- 
dented on their edges, which appear 
of an equal thicknefs throughout ; 
whereas the others are very (harp, or 
ridged at one extremity, and dilate 
gradually till they arrive at a confi- 
derable thicknefs at the other. The 
figures in the old fkctch are of a boar, 
and perhaps a bear. The upper ends 
of thefe pillars feem faithfully to fup- 
ply what has been deftroyed, a crofs 
and a capital. 

How this great variation in the 
drawings of the fame columns hap- 
pened, is not eafy to fay ; for it does 
not appear that there ever were any 
others in the place. Time has obli- 
terated the figures of the animals : 



but whether any workman had chiz- 
zled the whole {hafts of the pillars to 
their prefent form, is, 1 think, fcarcely 
to be conjedured ; they bear all the 
appearance of antiquity. The old 
drawings are done with much ele- 
gance, and are copied from fome col- 
ledions in the cuftody of Mr. Monk^ 
houfcy formed by Hugh Toddy D. I>. 
Prebendary of Carlijle and Vicar of 
Penrithy as materials for the antiqui- 
ties of the diocefe he belonged to. 
Notwithftanding my doubts about the 
entire fidelity of the old drawing, 
(which was done about the y^ar 1690) 
I caufe it to be engraven as a com- 
panion to the other, in hopes that 
fome antiquarian of the country will 
oblige the Public by clearing up the 

By Mr. Monkhoufe\ permiflion I 
annex Doctor Todd\ account of thefe 
antiquities : 

^' At 


*' At the north door of the church 
are ereded two large ftone pillars 
of a pyramidical form, cruciated 
towards the top, each of them fif- 
teen feet high, and placed at the 
diftance of feventeen feet from 
each other. The fpace between 
them is furrounded with the rude 
iiorures of four boars, or wild hoo;s, 
what this monument denotes, and 
for what reafon it was firft ereded, 
may be fomewhat uncertain. The 
common vulgar report is, That one 
Ewen or Owe7i Ccefarius^ a very ex- 
traordinary perfon famous in thefe 
parts for hunting and fighting, 
about 14.00 years ago, whom no 
hand but the hand of Death could 
overcome, lyes buried in this place. 
His ftature, as the ftory fays, was 
prodigious, beyond that of the 
Patagons in South Amei'ka^ viz. 
*^ fifteen feet. That the two pillars 

'^ denote 


denote his height, and the four 
rough unpoHfih'd ftones betwixt re- 
prefent fo many wild boars which 
had the honour to be killed by this 
wonderful giant. That there might 
be, in remote times, in thefe re- 
gions, men of large gigantick fi- 
gures, as there are now near the 
Magellanic Streights, and that they 
might affect Roman firnames and 
diftindiions as the Americans about 
Darien do Spanijhy needs not either 
be difcuffed or denied. But thofe 
perfons give the beft account of the 
original, nature, and defign of thefe 
ftones, who look upon them as of 
a much later date, and for a very 
different intention. That they were 
erected long after the introdudion 
of chriftianity at the north or 
Death's door of the church in the 
form of a crofs, in order to reft the 
bodies of the dead upon them, and 
to pray for their fouls (as the man- 








*' ner was) : And that the four figures 
** of Boars are the cognizance * of 
** the Earls of JVarwick^ fome of 
*' whom held the feigniory of Penrith 
* ' and lived in the caftle, and might 
*' be at the expence of the work." 

* The Bear and ragged- flafF was ; but I do not 
recolleft that the Boars had any thing to do with 
the Earls of fVarwick : But as Boars and Bears arc 
reprefented on the ftones, it feems as if this Mr. 
Cafarius was a knight-errant, who cleared the 
country of monfters -, fo in memorial of his ex- 
ploits thefe figures were engraven. The heads too 
might have been cut on the columns in memory 
of fome petty tyrants of the neighborhood whom 
he had demolifhed ; for fuch bloody trophies were 
in former days very common : witnefs, among the 
Weljh-, the T'n pen Sais, or three Englijhmen's heads, 
borne in the arms of many of our families, as a 
token of the prowefs of their anceftors. 

A Re- 



A Recanitulation of the A n i m a l d 
mentioned in the Tour, with fome. 
additional Remarks in Natural 

Ulld Cattle. 'T^ H E ofTspring of them nowr 

JL domefticated are faid to be 

found \n Hamilton Park. Vide p. 219; 

Roebuck. Inhabits the forefts on the fouth of 
Lough- Raynachi thofe in the neigh- 
borhood of Invercauld, the woods 
near ^arnaway and Calder caftles, 
and about hough-Moy and Lough- 
Nefs', and its mod northerly haunts 
are the woods of Langwally at the 
entrance into Cathnefs. 

A full-grown Roe weighs 60 lb. 
the hair in fummer is fliort, fmooth, 
and glolfy, red at the tips, cinereous 
beneath. At approach of winter the 
hair grows very long and hoary, and 
proves an excellent defence againft 
the rigor of the highland air. The 
rump and underfide of the tail white. 
The tail very fhort. Below the firft 
joint of the outfide of the hind leg 
is a long tuft of hair, fuch as is found 
on the legs of certain Antelopes. The 
horns of a Roebuck of the fccond 






: (Ao^/n^cL. it. 4iL^ 5%^^. 





year are ftrait, flender, and without 
any branch : in the third become bi- 
furcated : in the fourth, trifurcated, 
and grow more fcabrous and frrongerj 
in proportion to their longevity. It 
feeds during lunaitier on grafs, and is 
remarkably fond oi tht Rubus Saxatilis^ 
called in the Highlands on that ac- 
count the Roebuck Berry. When 
the ground is covered with fnow it 
feeds on the extreme branches of the 
pine and juniper. It brings two 
young at a time. The Fawns are 
elegantly fpotted with white. It is 
extremely difficult to rear them ; com- 
monly eight out of ten dying in the 
attempt. The flefii of the Roe is by 
fome accounted a delicacy : to me ir 
feemed very dry. They keep in fmall 
families of five or fix. 

Notwithftanding it is not quite pe« 
culiar to Scotland in a wild ftate, yet 
is mentioned here on account of fome 
Angularities relating to its natural 
hiitory, v/hich I collefled in my jour- 
ney. Stags abound all over the High- 

. lands and in the Ifle of Skie. In the 
lafi: are fo numerous as to oblige the 
farmer to watch his corn : are very 

. fond of crowsfoot, and, like the Re'ui^ 

will eat lichens. I have been affurcd 

U that 



that they are greatly delighted with 
the found of mu^ck, and that they 
will be tempted to remain in the 
deepeft attention : that they are fre- 
quently (liot, allured to their deftrnc- 
tion by the melody of the pipe. Fal- 
low Deer are very fcarce in North- 
Britain^ and wholly confined in parks. 

Highland Is the kind which Boethius takes no- 
Creheund, tice of, and fays is one of the three 
that are not to be found any where 
clfe. He calls it, Genus venaticum 
cum cekrrimum turn audacijjimuni : nee 
modo in [eras fed in hojles ctiam La- 
tronefque ; -praftrtim ft dominum due- 
ioremve injuriam affici cernat aut in eos 

This fort of dog is become very 
rare. Vide p. 133. 

IFolffh breed, I faw at Gordon caftle a dog the ofF- 
fpring of a Wolf and Pomeranian 
bitch. It had much the appearance 
of the firlu, was very good natured 
and fportive ; but being flipped at a 
weak Deer it inflantly brought the 
animal down and tore out its throat. 
This dog was bred by Mr. Brooke 
animal- merchant, in London^ who told 
me that the congrefs between the 

- '* wolf 


wolf and the bitch was immediate, 
and the produce at the litter was ten. 

fVhiie Hare. Peculiar to the fummits of the higheft 
mountains of the Highlands : is lefs 
than the common Hare •, its limbs 
rriore (lender ; its flelh more delicate : 
it never defcends into the vallies, or 
mixes with the common kind : is very 
agile and full of frcrlick when kept 
tame : is fond of honey and carraway 
comfits, and prognoflicates a ftorm 
by eating its own dung : in a wild 
ftate, does not run an end, but feeks 
fhelter under flones as foon as pof* 

Inuring fummer its predominant 
color is grey : about September it be- 
gins to aflume a fnowy whitenefs ; the 
alteration of color appearing about 
the neck and rurrip, and becomes en- 
tirely white, except the edges and tips 
of the ears : in Jpril it again refumes 
its grey coat. 

Ldvetlari. A fmall animal, nientioned by Sir 
Robert Sibbald, as being common in 
Cathnefsy living in the water, and 
whofc breath is noxious to cattle. T 
fufped from the defcription that I had 
p^ivcn me, that it is the fame with the 
U 2 Water 


Water Shrewmoufc, Br. Zool. illujlr. 
p. 83. 

I could get no account of Sir Ro- 
hert''s moufe with a black back, which 
he fays kills moles. 

Seals. The Seals on the coafts o^ North- 

Britain are the common and the great. 
Syn. S>uad. N"' . 265. 266. But I could 
not learn that the fValrus was ever 
ieen in any of the Scottish Seas : not- 
withftanding it was found about the 
Orkney Ifles in the days of Boefbius, 
Vide Defc. Regn. Scotia, xvi. 


Eagle. The Sea Eagle breeds in ruined tow- 

ers, and leaves its fummer haunts be- 
fore winter. The Rinj^-tail Eagle, 
Br. Zool. breeds in rocks, and con- 
tinues in North Britain the whole 

Falcons. The Peregrine and the Gentil Falcons 
breed in Glenmore^ and other lofty rocks 
of the Highlands. The Gyr-Falcon 
has been fhot in Jhcrdeenjhire. A 
large white FJawk, I fuppofe an un- 
fpotted bird of the laft fpecies, has 
bred for thefe laft twelve years ziHil- 
leigh-Grccn, near Hacknefs, four miles 
from Scarborough. 

4 Co/lawks. 

%r^ ,ff/,^ ff^r^. 


9>*.it^y/ . 


Cojhawh. Breed in trees in the highland part of 

Owl. The great-horned or Eagle Owl has 

been fhot in the fhire of Fife. 

Crow. The common fpecies is very rare in 

the Highlands, there being fcarce any 
other fort found there than the Roy- 
jlon or Hooded Crow, which refides 
there the whole year. Whence thofe 
that vifit us annually during winter 
migrate from is uncertain. 

Chatterer. Vifits i\\t neighborhood of Edinburgh 
annually, appearing in flocks during 
winter, and feeds on the berries of 
the mountain afli. 

Chough. Is found in the fartheft parts of Glen- 
lioHy and near Acbrnore. 

Cock of the This bird is found in a few woods 

PVood. north of hoigh-Nefs^ ; perhaps in 

thofe near Caflle-Grant ? Formerly;, 

was common throurhout the Kicrh- 

t _ o 

lands, and was called Caper calze, and 
Auercalze ; and in the old law-books, 
Capercally. The variety of the black 
game, mentioned by iVI. Briffon under 
the name of Coq^. de Bruyere pi^uete^ 
U 3 Wiis 



was a mixed breed between thcfe two 
birds i but I could not hear tha. any 
at prefent wen^ to be found in North 
Britain. Liniteus has met with them 
in Sweden^ and defcribes them unrer 
the title of leirao cauda bifurca fuhtus^ 
alho pin5lata, 

'Ptarmigan, Another of the grous kind, common 
on the fummits of the higheft high- 
land hills. Vide p. S3, and Br. Zool. 
illujir. p. 21. If I miftake not, I 
have heard that a few are ftill found 
on the Cumberland mountains. 

Bufiard. Now extind in Scotland. Boethius 
fays that in his days it was found in 

Ring-dove. I found in the Journal of Mr. James 
Stare. Rohertjon an ingenious eleveof Dodlor 
Hope^ that thefe two birds are found 
in great abundance during fummer 
in the Ifle of Arran. Ririg-Ouzels 
are very common in the Highlands. 

Nightingale. Not found in North-Britain : proba- 
bly from the fcarcity, and novelty of 
hedges in that part of the kingdom, 
yet it vifits Sueden a much more rigo- 
rous climate. 





i y. 

I. f^a/rTAua^j'L. H.^^Y^/^f or^tAe y/iootl. 


Stone-Cbatter. T\i\s bird is feen near Edinburgh dur- 
ing winter ; fo does not migrate. 

Pwe'Bu^fi7tch.Br. ZocL ilhijlr. p, 59. Found during 
fummer in the pine-foreils of Aher- 
deenjhire, and probably breeds there. 

Snciv-flake. I have had lately an opportunity of 
comparing this bird with the greater 
Brambling and find them to be dif- 
ferent, and not, as I once thought, • 
varieties of the fame kind. The fize 
of this is lefs, and the claw of the 
hind toe much fhorter, A few of 
thefe birds breed with the Ptarmigans 
on the fummits of the higheft moun- 
tains •, but the greateft numbers mji- 
grate from the moft diilant north, 
• even from Greenland and Spitzbergem 
Vide Br, ZocL illujir. p. 1 7. 


Wbimbrel. Breeds in the hills about Invercaidd, 

RedGcdwit. Breeds in Lincolnjhire. For the lift 
of other fen birds, vide p. 9, 10, 

Auks, The black-billed Auk and lefler Guil- 

lemot appear during winter in flocks 
innumerable in the Firth of Forth ; 
and are called there Marrots, Their 
U 4 fum- 


fummer retreat is not yet traced. The 
Jittle Auk is Ibmetimes (hot near Ahr- 

JrSfic Gull. Is called i^ North Britain tlie Dirty 
jiulin. i faw one flying over the Firth 
of Forth near the Queen's Ferry. 

(^oofander. Dc6lor Walker of Moffat fhewed me 
one killed ,during fummcr in the 
weftern ifles •, alfo fome other birds 
which were fuppoled to have migrated 
out of Great Britiwi. He alfo difco- 
vered in the Ille of Tirey the Tringa 


Snake. A nev/ Britijh Snake was difcovered 

in Aberdeen/hire by the late Do(fl:or 
I David Skene, a gentleman whofe lofs 
will be deplored by every lover of 
natural .hiftory ; for to great know- 
lege was added the mod liberal and 
.communicative difpofition. The ac- 
count he favored me with of this rep- 
tile was this : Its length was fifteen 
inches : it had no fcuia abdom. or 
catidalia, but was entirely covered 
with fmall fcales, which on the upper 
part of the head were larger than the 
reft : the tongue was broad and fork- 
ed : the noftrils fmall and round, and 



placed near the tip of the nofe : the 
eyes lodged in oblong fifilires above 
the angle of the mouth : the belly 
was of a bluifh lead-color with fmall 
white fpots irreoiilarly difperfed : the 
reit of the body of a greyifli brown 
with three longitudinal blackifli 
brown lines, one extending from the 
back of the head to the point of the 
tail, the two others were broader and 
extended the whole length of the 
fides. DocTcor Skene informed me that 
it was the fame with the Anguis Eryx 
of Linnaeus, p. 392. 

F I S K. 

B*:ifiing This fpecies frequents the Firth of 
Shark. Clyde and the feas of the weftern ifles : 
the Trudees for the forfeited eftates 
encourage the nfliery, and furnifh the 
adventurers with money to purchafe 
th^e proper materials. 

Picked Dcg' Swarms on the eaftern coaft of Scot- 
land, and is taken and cured for the 
ufc of the common people. Mr. 
James Robcrtfon obferved near the 
Ifle of Skie a fpecies called there the 
Blind'kive, which is reckoned a great 



Greater Draco major feu araneus Salvian. 70. 

Weever. This fpecies was taken near Scar- 

borough^ and communicated to me by 
Mr. '•Travis. 

Its length eleven inches ; greateft 
depth one inch and three-quarters : 
head flat : eyes large : edges of the 
jaws rough with minute teeth •, the 
lower jaw the longeft, and dopes lefs 
than that of the common fpecies: the 
head covered with minute tubercles i 
cheeks an'd gills covered v/ith fmall 
, fcales ; on the lafl: is a fharp fpine. • 

Firft dorfal fin is black, and con- 
fifts of five jpines j the fecond reaches 
within a fmall diilance of the tail : 
the perioral has thirteen branched 
rays •, the ventral fix •, the anal ex- 
tends as far as the fecond dorlal : tail 
* large, triangular, and even at the 


The fcales run in oblique lines from 
the back to the belly, with a divifion 
between each row; 

Codfijh, One was taken at Scarborough in 1 755, 

which meafured five feet eight inches, 
and its girth round the (lioulders five 
feet: its weight 781b. and was fold 
for a Ihilling. 


Saurus Rondel. 232. 




After a violent ftorm from the 
N.E. in November laft, a great num- 
ber of thefe fiih were flung on fhore 
in rtie Firth oi Perth on the fands of ' 

Leith. An account and an accurate 
figure of one of them was commu- 
nicated to me bv Mr. George Paton 
of Editfiurgb, a gentleman who is a 
zealous promoter of natural know- 

Its length is eleven inches : the 
nofe flender : the jaws produced like 
thofe of the Sea Needle, but of equal 
lengths, and the upper mandible 
nightly recurvated •, their length one 
inch : eyes large : body flender and 
anguilliform, but towards the tail 
grows fuddenly fmaller, and tapers 
to a very inconfiderable girth : on the 
lower part of the back is a fmall fin, 
with fix fpurious between that and 
the tail, like thofe of the Mackrel : 
correfpondent to thefe are the anal 
and fix fpurious : the peroral and 
ventral fins very fmall : the tail much 
forked : the back when frefh was of 
a dark color, the belly bright and 

Rondektius defcribesthis fifli among 
thofe of the Mediterranean ; but 
fpeaks of it as very rare even there. 

C R U S- 



'thorny Crab' Cancer fpinofus^ maximus, cricntalis 
Scb. Muf. 56. tab. xxii. fig. i. Can- 
ur fpinofus ambo'mcnfis — 44. tab. xviii. 
fig. 10. 

C Horridus Lin. fyft. 1047. 
C. fpinofus^ thcrace cordato, mucro- 
nato : pedibus tantuni tribus curforiis : 
chelis inaq. pcd. minoribus, Gronov. 
Zooph. No. 976. 

Body of a heart- fhape: length from 
the fnout to the end of the back five 
inches one-tenth : fnout projcfting 
and bifurcated : the upper cruft co- 
vered with thick fpincs ; thofe on the 
margins very long, fharp and Itrong : 
the claws covered on all fides with 
great fpines ; the right claw twice as 
, large as the left: the fangs befet with 

frnall tufts of hair : on each fide only 
three legs echinated like the claws, 
and nine inches long. No BritrJJj 
cruftaceous animal is {0 well guarded 
as this. 

I have k^T\ this fpecies almoft 
wholly incrufted with the Lepas ha- 
lanusy and Anomia fquamula. Do<5lor 
Skene favored me with a fine fpeci- 
rnen, it being taken on the coafl of 









Sea on the Torkjhin 




Marin us. 




Trifurcatus novus, ihid, 

Qiiadratus novus, ihid. 

Phalangium GrolTipes, Sea near Aherdeenl 

Dr. Skene. 

Balicnarum, ihid* 

Q.U E R I E S, 



Q^U E R I E S, 

Originally compofed and printed by- 
Order of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and now addrefled to 
the Gentlemen and Clergy of North-- 
Britai7i^ refpedling the Antiquities 
and natural Hiftory of their refpec- 
tive Parifhes *, with a View of ex- 
citing them to favor the World with, 
a fuller and more fatisfacftory Ac- 
count of their Country, than it is 
in the Power of a Stranger and 
traniient Vifitant to give. 


1» T'^J 7 H AT is the antient and modern name 
of the parifli, and its etymology t 

II. What number of hamlets or villages are in 
it> their names and fituation ? 

III. What are the number of its houfes and in- 
habitants ? 

• Many of the paiilTies in Kcrth Britain are of Aich ex- 
tent as to fupply ample maicrials for a hillory of each alone; 
fo it is to be hoped fome parochial Gtniu/es will arile and 
favor the Publick with what is much wanted, local 




IV. What number of people have been married, 
chriftened, and buried, for the fpace of 20 years 
laft pad, compared with the firft 20 years of the 
regiftcr? When did the rcgifter begin <■ If there 
are any curious remarks made therein, pleafe to 
give an account thereof. 

V. Are there any vaults or burial places pecu- 
liar to any ancient or other families ? What are 
they, and to whom do they belong ? 

VI. Are there any ancient or modern remarkable 
monuments or grave-ftones in the church or chan- 
cel, Sec. Pleafe to give the infcriptions and arms, 
if any, on the fame, if worthy notice, efpecially if 
before the i6th century. 

VII. Are there any remarkable ones in the 
church-yard ? Pleafe to give an account what they 
are. Are there any paintings in the windows either 
of figures or arms ? Add a copy or defcription, 

VIII. Are there any tables of benefaiflions or 
other infcriptions v/hich are worthy notice, on any 
of the walls of the church, either within or with* 
out ? Pleafe to infert them at full lengih. 

■* IX. Are there any particular cuftoms or privi- 
leges or remarkable tenures in any of the manoi'S 
j in the parifh ? 

X. What ancient manor or manfion-lioufe, feats 
or villas, are in the parifh .' 

' XJ. Are 




XI. Are there any annual or other procefllons, 
perambulations, or any hofpital, alms or fchool- 
houfe -, by whom and when founded, and wlio has 
the right of putting people into them ? 

XII. Have you any wake, whitfon ale, or other 
cuftoms of that fort ufed in the parifh ? 

XIII. Is there any great road leading thro* the 
pari(h, and from what noted places ? 

XIV. Are there any crofles or obelifl^s or any 
things of that nature ere(5ted in the parifh ? 

XV. Arc there any remains or ruins of mo- 
nafteries or religious houfes ? Give the beft account 
thereof you can. 

XVI. Are there any Roman, Pi5!ijby or Danijb 
caftles, camps, altars, roads, forts, or other pieces 
of antiquity remaining in your parifh : what are 
they, and what traditions arc there, or hiftorical 
accounts of them ? 

XVII. Have there been any medals, coins, or 
other pieces of antiquity dug up in your pasifh i 
when and by whom, and in whofe cuftcdy arc 
they ? 

XVIII. Have there been any remarkable battles 
fought, on what fpot, by wliom, when, and what 
traditions are tiiere rclatins thereto .'' 


XIX. Has 


XIX. Has the parifii given either birth or bu- 
rial to any man eminent for learning or other re- 
markable or valuable qualifications ? 

XX. Are there any parks or warrens, the num- 
ber of deer, and extent of the park, &:c. any he- 
ronries, decoys, or fifheries ? 

XXI. Do any rivers rife in or run thro* the pa- 
rifli, which are they -, if navigable, what fort of 
boats are ufed on them, and what is the price of 
carriage pc-r hundred or ton, to your parifh ? 

XXIL Are there any, and what bridges, how 
are they fuppor:ed, by private or public coft, of 
what materials, what number of pie/s or arches, 
the length and breadth of the bridge and width of 
the arches ? 

XXIII. Are there any barrows or tumuli, and 
have any been opened, and what has been found 
therein ? 

XXIV. Are there any manufactures carried on 
in the parifh, and what number of hands are em- 

XXV. What markets or fairs are kept in tlic 
parifh, what commodities are chiefly brought for 
fale i if any of the manufactures or produce of the 
country, live cattle, or other things, that toil is 
paid and to whom, and where are they kept ? 




XXVI, Is there any (latutc fair for hiring of 
fervants, and how long has it been eftabhfhed j 
what are the ufual wages for men and maids, 
&c. for each branch of hufbandry ? 

XXVII. Are there in any of the gentlemen's 
houfes, or on their eftates, any pictures which give 
infight into any hiftorical fadVs, ot any portraits of 
men eminent for any art, fcience, or literature ; 
any ftatues, bufto's, or other memorial which wiW 
give any light to paft tranfadions ? 

QJl E R I E S 




Relating to the Natural Iliftory of 
the Parish. 

I. TTjTHAT is the appearance of the country in 
VV theparilhj is it fiat or hilly, rocky or 
mountainous ? 

II. Do the lands confift of woods, arable, paf- 
ture, meadow, heatli, or what ? 

III. Are they fenny or mooriHi, boggy of firm } 

IV. Is there fand, clay, chalk, fi;one, gravel, 
loam, or What is the nature of the foil ? 

V. Are there any lakes, meers or waters, what 
are they, their depth, where do they rife, and 
whither do they run ? 

VI. Are there any fubterraneous rivers, which 
appear in one place, then fink into the earth, and 
rife again ? 


VII. Are there any mineral fpfings, frequented 
for the drinking the waters ; what are they ; at 
what fealbns of the year reckoned befi, and what 
difrempcrs are they frequented for ? 

^ 2 yni. Arc 


VIII. Are there any periodical fprings, which 
rife and fail, ebb and flow, at what fcafons, give 
the bed account you can ? 

IX. Are there any mills on the rivers, to what 
ufes are they employed ? 

X. Are there any and what mines ; what arc 
they •, to whom do they belong j what do they 
produce ? 

XL Have you any marble, moorflone, or other 
flone of any fort, how is it got out, and how 
worked ? 

XII. What forts of manure or amendment do 
they chiefly ufe for their land, and what is the 
price of it on the fpot ? 

XIII. What are the chief produce of the lands, 
wheat, rye, oats, barley, peas, beans, or wiiat ? 

XIV. What forts of fifh do the rivers produce, 
what quantities, and what prices on the fpot, and 
in what feafons are they belt ? 

*X1V. What quadrupeds and birds are there 
in your pariQi ? What migratory birds, and at what 
times do they appear and difappear r 

XV. Arc 


XV. Are there any remarkable caves, or grot- 
toes, natural or artificial ? give the bell defcription 
and account thereof you can. 

XVI. Are there any and what quantities of faf- 
fron, woad, teazels, or other vegetables of that 
fort, growing in the parifli, and the prices they fell 
for on the fpot ? 

XVII. Is the parifli remarkable for breeding any 
cattle of remarkable qualities, fize, or value, and 
what ^ 

XVIII. Are there any chalk-pits, fand or gravel- 
pits, or other openings in the parifh, and what ? 

XIX. On digging wells or other openings, what 
ftrata*s of foil do they meet with, aTid how thick 
is each ^ 

XX. How low do the fprings lye, and what 
fort of water do you meet with in the feveral parts 
of the parifli .'' 

XXI. Is there any marl, fuller's earth, potter's 
earth, or loam, or any other remarkable foils, as 
ochre, &c. 

XXII. Are there any bitumen, naptha, or other 
fubftanccs of that nature found in the earth ? 

X 3 XXIII. Does 


XXIII. Does the pari(h produce any quantities 
of timber, of what fort, and what are the prices on 
the fpot, per load or ton ? Are there any very large 
trees, and their fize ? 

XXIV. Are any quantities of fheep raifed or fed 
in the parifh, and on what do they chiefly feed ? 

XXV. Are the people of the country remarkable 
for ftrength, fize, complexion, or any bodily or 
natural qualities ? 

!XXVI. What are the diverfions chiefly ufed by 
the gentry, as well as the country people, on par- 
ticular occafions ? 

XXVII. What is the nature of the air ; is it 
moiil: or dry, hsalthy or fubjedl to agues and fevers, 
and at what time oi the year is it reckoned moft 
fo ? and, if you can, account for the caufes. 

XXVIII. Are there any petrifying fprings or 
waters that incrud bodies, what are they ? 

XXIX. Any hot waters or wells for bathing, 
and for what diftempcrs frequented ? 

XXX. Are there any figured ftones, fuch as 
cchinit^e, belemnitas, &c. Any having the impref- 
fion of plants or fifties on them, or any foffll ma- 


fine bodies, fuch as fhells, corals, &c. or any 
petrified parts of animals : where are they found, 
and what arc they ? 

XXXI. Is any part of the parifh fubjeft to in- 
undations or land floods, give the beft account, if 
any things of that nature have happened, and when ? 

XXXII. Hath there been any remarkable mif- 
chief done by thunder and lightning, ftorma ot 
whirlwinds, when and what ? 

XXXIII. Are there any remarkable echoes, 
where and what are they p 

XXXIV. Have any remarkable phsenomena 
been obfcrved in the air, and what ? 

If the Parijh is on the Sea Coast. 

XXXV. What fort of a (bore, fiat, fandy, high, 
orj-ocky ? 

XXXVI. What forts of fifh are caught there, in 
what (quantity, at what prices fold, when moft in 
ftafon, how taken, and to what market fent ? 

XXXVII. What other Sea animals, plants, 
fponges, corals, fiiells, ^c. are found on or near 
ihc coalls ? 



XXXV'ITI. Are there any remarkable Sea weeds 
ufed tor manure of land, or curious on any other 
account ? 

XXXIX. What are the courks of the tides on 
the fl^, or r>ff ar Sea, the current'^ at a mile's 
diftance, and other things worthy remark ? 

X^^. Vv hat number of fifhing vefTels, of what 
fort, how navigated, and what number of hands 
are there in the parilh ? 

XLl. Kow many fhips, and of what burthen, 
belong to the parifii ^ 

XLII. Are there any> and what light-houfes, 
beacons, or land-marks ? 

XLin. What are the names of the creeks, bays, 
harbours, headlands, fands, or iflands near the 
coafts f 

XLIV. Have there been any remarkable battles 
, or rea-fi<^hts near the coafts, and when did any re- 

markable wrecks or accidents happen, which can 
give li^ht to any hiftorical fa£ls ? 

XLV. If you arc in a city, give the beft account 
you can procure of the hiftory and antiquity of the 
place i if remarkable for its buildings, age, walls, 



fieges, charters,privileges, immunities, gates, ftreets, 
markets, fairs, the number of churches, wards and 
guilds, or companies, or fraternities, or clubs that 
are remarkable ; how is it governed ? if it fends 
members to parliament, in whom does the choice 
lye, and what number of voters may there have 
been at the laft poll ? 


C 314 ] 




21 Chefter, Deonna-iBez'ana Ptol. Deva Anton. 

Rav. Chorog. Deva, colonia legio cretica 
vkcfima Valeria vi^lrix R. C. 
1 8 Northwich, Condate. R. C. 
8 Knutsford, 

1 2 Macclesfield, 

10 Buxton, 

13 Middekon, 

1 1 Chefterfield, 
J 6 Workfop, 

12 Tuxford, 

8 pLinham Ferr}', on the TrentjTrivo»aJ!. R.C. 
10 Lincoln, L/W«wFtol. Anton. Rav. Chorog. 

6 Wafhenbrough and back to Lincoln, 
1 2 Spittle, 
12 Glanford Bridge, 
12 Barton, 

Humber River, /^I?u^, Ptol. R. C. 

8 Hull, 

8 Burton Conflable, 

22 Burlington Quay. 

Its bay, Cabrantuicorum portuofus ftnusVTOh. 
Portiis f.clix R. C. 
5 Flamborough Head, Btigantum extremaK.Q. 
10 Hunmanby, 

10 Scar- 







Robin Hood's Bay, 


• Whitby, 


SkeUin Dam, 





Tees River, Tijlsjl. R. C. its mouth, Dunum 

Jin MS Ptol. 



V7ere River, Fedra'jl. R. C. 


Chcfter le Street, Epiacum R. C. 


Newcaftle, Pons Aelii Notit. Imp. 

Tyne River, Vedra fi. Ptol. "Tina jl, R. C. 






Alnwick, Alauna Rav. Chorog. 




Berwick, ^tiejfis Rav. Chorog. 

Tweed River, Alaunus Ptol. ^ueda R. C. 



!6 Old CambLis, 

3 Dunbar, Ledone Rav. Chorog. 

6 North Berwick, 

14 Prefton Pans, 

8 Edinburgh, 

9 South Ferry, 

Firth of Forth, BcderiaPTOL. BodoirlaT aciti. 
R. C- 

2 North 



2 North Ferry, . 

Fife County, Horojli: R. C. Caledonia Taciti. 
15 Kinrofs, 
20 Rumbling Brig, Caflle Campbell, and back 

to Kinrofs 
13 Caftle Duplin, Duablifts Rav. Chorog. 

8 Perth, Orrea R. C. 

Tay River and its mouth, TausTAcm. Tava 
JEfl, Ptol. R.C. 

1 Scone, 

I Lunkerty, 

13 Dunkeld, 

20 Taymouth, 

15 Carrie on Lough Raynach, 

20 Blair, 

35 Through Glen-Tik to Invercauld, 

18 TuUoch, 

15 Kincairn, 

9 Banchorie, 
18 Aberdeen, 

Dee River, Bha fl. Ptoj.. R, C,-. 
Ythen River, Ittma fl. R. C. 
25 Bownefs, 

27 Craigfton Caflle, • 

9 BamfF, 

Devron River, Celniiis fl. R.C. 
8 Cullen, 
12 Cadle Gordon, 

Spey River, Celmus fl. Prol. Ti^^j R. C. 
8 Va\gmi Alitacenon Rav. Chorog. 

10 Forres, 



I o Forres, 

I I Tarnaway Caftle, Calder, Fort George. 
Firth of Murray, Tu<e. JBfi. FTOL.Farar jEj}^ 

12 Invernefs, Ptcroton-i caftra data R.C. 
10 Caille Dunie, 
18 Dingwall, Foules. 

Firth of Cromartie, Loxafl. R. C. 
Rofslhire, Creones R. C. the fame writer places 
at Cbannery in this county, Ar^Jinium Imp, 
15 Ballinagouan, 
6 Tain, Cafira data Ptol. 
9 Dornoch. Its Firth, Vara o'Ji, Ptol. Ahonajl, 
R. C. 
Sutherland County, Logi R. C. 
9 Dunrobin Catlle, 
18 Hemfdale, 

Ord of Cathnefs, Ri-pa alta Ptol. 
Cachnefs County, Carnabii, Cattini R. C. 
Virubtum promontorium R. C. 
8 Langwall, 

15 Clythe ; Q\yx.\\^n^(s^Vervedrum prom.'K.C. 
8 Thrumlter, 

3 Wick, 

Wick River, Ilea ft. Ptol. 

1 6 Duncan's or Dungby Bay, and John a Grout's 

DunL:fby Head, Berulium promontorium Vtol, 

Caledonia extrema R. C. 
Stroma ille, Ocetis Infula R. C. 

2 Canelby, 



2 Canefby, and back the fame road to 
137 Invernefs, 

Invernefs County, Caledctiii R. C. 

17 General's Hut, 

15 Fort Auguftus, 

Dough Lochy, Longus fl. R. C. 
28 Fort William. R. C. places Banatian^zv it. 

14 Kinioch-Leven, 
9 King's Houfe, 

19 Tyendrum, 

12 Dalmalie, 

1 6 Inveraray, v 
22 Tarbut, 

Loch-Lomond, Liucaiidor Lacus R. C. 
8 Lufs, 
12 Dunbarton, Theodofia R. C. 

Firth of Clyde, G/(?/<2 Taciti. Clotta^eJi.Vi.Qi 

15 Glafgow, Ciidum Rav. Chorog. 
24 Hamilton, and back to Glafgow, 
jg Kylfithe, 

1 8 Sterling, 
8 Falkirk, 


15 Hopeton Houfe, 

II Edinburgh, 

18 Lenton, 

18 Bild, 

1 8 Moffat, 

18 Lockerby, 

K N G- 



21 Longtown in Cumberland, 

Netherby, Cajira expbrjtorum An-ton. Jejics 
Rav. Chorog. 
9 Carlifle, LugavalliuTn Anton. 
18 Penrith, Bereda Rav. Chorog. 
II Shap in Weftmorland, 
15 Kendal, Conca7ightm Notit. Imp. 
1 1 Burton, Coccium R. C. 
II Lancafier, Lcngovicus^OTiT . Imp.' 

Lune River, Alanna fi. R. C. 
1 1 Garflang, 
1 1 Prefton, 
1 8 Wiggan, 
13 Warrington, 
21 Chefter, 
21 Downing in Flintfiiire. 

The antient names of places marked R. C. are borrowed 

from the late Dr Stukeley^ account of Richard oT Cirencejier^ 
with his ancient map of Roman Brittain and the Itinerary 
thereof, publill-ed in 1757. "^^^^ reil from Mr. Horjly'i 
remarks on Ptolemy, Antonine's Itinerary^ Notitia imperii, 
and Ravennatis Britannia Chorographia, 


[ 320 ] 


I N D 




Page 1 



■^ Old, 


Alnwick Caftle, 


Alum works in Yorkfhire 




Appenines o{ Etigland^ 


Argentine, Siruan'% favorite 



Arthur's Oven, 


Augufiust Fort, 






Aw^ Lough, 



Bamlcrough Caftle, well regulated charity there, 

33> 34 

Bamff^ 128 

Bafs IQe, 46 

Beggars, few in Scotlandy 87 

Bel-teiuy a finguhr fuperftition, 94 

Benevijhy higher than Snowdon, 190 

Berridale, 1 Co 

Berwick on Tweedy its falmon filhery, 40, 4 1 

North, 47 

Birch tree, its great ufe, 114 


INDEX. 321 


Birds, of LincohPjire, 9, lo^ 11, 12 

FLimborough Headf 15 

Fa?-,! Jjlands, 36 

Birnam Wood, 77 

Black-mail, a forced levy fo called, 1S7 

5/^/r Houfcr, 102 

Bodotria of Tacitus^ 43 

BoUiiir-i Pafs of, 1 1 6 

Botanic garden at £i/;?Z':(:rp'^, 58 

Boivnejs Caftle, its iirange ficuation, 124 

Braan Cafile, 150 

Brae- mar t Jo8 

^r^?/?, finecafcade on the, 79 

Brotche, 89 

Bultinch, greater, 114 

Bullers of Biwhany 125 

Btirlingtcn, ' 1 4 

Burnet, Bp» amiable in his cpifcopal characler, 249 

Buxton, its faiubrious waters, 3 

Caldor, or Cavjdcr Cafde, 


Cambiis, Old, 


CartipheU, Caftle, 




Carron Iron-work';, 




Cattle, wild, ■. . 


Cd'Ji'dron Glen, a cafar.i^l there. 


Chain the, what, 






322 INDEX. 


Chejler, its fingular (Ireets, i 

Cathedral, jhid. 

Hypocauft, ibid. 

Chpjlerfield, ^ 

Chejler Le Street, 30 

Church Scotch^ its conftirntion, 235 

Clau Chattan^ o\' M'-'IntoJJjcs, 172 

Clergy Scotch^ commendable conduftof, I43 

Coal of Sutherland^ its miraculous quality, 157 

Cobles, a fmall boat-y 36 

Cock of the Wood, 293 

Coker, its romantic iituation, 29 

Ccldinghanj Moor and Abbey, . 43 

Coranich, or howling at fun-.rals, 96 

Cottages, wretched in the Highlands, 1 1 5 

Crab, the Thorney, 300 

Craigfron Caftle, 1 2 8 

Crane, now unknown in Efig<at}d^ 1 z 

Crickton, the admirable, his picture, 130 

Cromartte^ Firth of, 151 

Crows, Royfton or Hooded, ^^, 293 
Ctdlen Houfe and Town, 130, 131 

fingular rocks near, 131 

Cullcden Houfe and Moor, 144 

Cuftoms, fingular ones in the Highlands, 94, 170 

Cuthbcrt\ Ducks, Saint, 38 


Days, long in Cf?//;;;//;, 169 

Drt//^^;//^, pidu res there, 62 

Dean of Guild, what, 148 


INDEX. 323 


Delamere Forefl, 


Dingwall Town, 


Dogger Bank, great fifliery near, 






Dunheth Caftle, 


Dungjby Bay, 




Dunrobin Caftle, 




Duplin Caftle, piflures there. 







Eider Ducks, 


Edinburgh^ its lofty fituation. 








Elgin^ a good town. 


its cathedral. 


Erfe language, where fpoken. 

168, 209 


Fairies, belief in. 




Falkirk, great cattle fairs there, 




Earn Iftands, 


y 2 


32+ INDEX, 


Fafting woman, extraordinary cafe of, 261 
Fen, Eaft, its fidi and birds, 9? 10 

Fiery crofs, what, 175 

Finchal monaftery, 29 

'rint\ Lough, its herring-fifhery, 202 

Flam/^croiigh-l-iesid, its birds, 1 6 

Flixto}!^ 1 7 

Forcbabusy 134 

Forfeited eftates, how applied, 149 

Forres^ great column near, 136 

Fofs-dyke, 6 
Fraoch-ElaHy the HefperUes o( the Highlands, 199 

Freehi&gh Hill, a large Tumulus, 25 

Frejwick Caftle, horrid Iituation of, 162 

Funeral cuftoms, 96 

ryers-> fall of, 18 1 



47, 165, 169 

Geefc, how often plucked. 


George, Fort, Old, 

147 • 







Glen-Rcy^ ftrange roads there. 

191, 266 

Glen-Ttlt, a dangerous pafs. 




Godricy Saint, his a u (lenities, 


Gordon CaRle, 


Gowrie con fjnracy, 



INDEX. 325 


Grnham^ John De, his epitaph. 


Graham's Dyke, 


Granite Quarries at A^. Ferry^ 




Gre-hound, the Highland, 

133, 290 

Grcut's^ John a, ho Life, 


Gull, Ardic, 



Halydon Hill, battle of. 


Hares, white. 

S2, 291 

Heronry, a great, 


Herring fifhery. 

202, 203 



Highlands, awefull entrances into. 


Drefs of the Highland Men, 






Charadter of the Highlanders 

, 176 

Sports and amufements of. 


Hope ion Houfe, 


Huntings, magnificent in old times, 104, 108 


Jamefon, the painter, ^^ 

Fine pidture of his titTiiymoufb, ibid. 
Other pidlures of his, 128, 129 

Jet, where found, 23 

Inoculation pradlifed as far as Shetland Ifles, 168 
Infcdts, 301 





Inverary Town and Cadle, 


Invercauld, its magnificent fituation. 


Jnverhchy Caftlc, 






Joug, whatj 





Kikhurn Caftle, 


Killicrankie, Pafs of, 




Kinkfs Jibbey, 




Kittivvake, a fort of Gull, 



Labor, its price in Scotland, 

7^ 115 

Late wake, a ftrange funeral cuftom, 


Lavellan, the Water Shrew-moufe, 

160, 291 



Lincoln, its beautiful! cathedral. 



187, 191 

Locbiel, his feat. 




its fifli and birds. 


Loncarty, battle of. 


LoJBc River, 


Lothian, Eafl, its fertility. 



INDEX. 327 




' 3 

Mackrel fture. 


Mac Nabhs^ an antient family of fmlths, 


Marble, white, 


Marriage cuftoms, fingular. 




Moncrief^ Hill of; its fine vicwj 


Monro^ Sir Robert^ his epitaph. 


Morpeth^ '. 


Mountain, the black. 


Mummies, natural. 



Natural hiftory, recapitulation of, &c. 


Nefs, Lough, 

179, 182 

agitations of, in 17559 


Newbottk, piflures there. 

, 59 

Newcajlle on Tyne, 


its falmon-fifhery, 


Nightingale, none in Scotland, 


Ord of Catbnefsy a high promontory, 


Orkney Ifles, 


Ouzels, Ring, 





Penrithi the pillars at. 

231, 282 


328 INDEX. 


Perth, a fine town, 7^ 

its trade, ibid. 

P-clJjIj c^iWcs, J 56 

Pine forclb, 1 12, 194. 

Pines, vafi Plantations of, 151, 152 

Poetry, Erft\ 274, &c. 

Prejion PanSy 48 

Proverbs, Erfe, 258, &l. 

Provifions, prices of, at Edinburgh, 5S 

at Aberdeen^ 1 2 1 

at Invernefs, 148 

Ptarrr.igans, 83, 294 


Queries relating to the antiquities and natural 

hiftory of Norlb Britain, 302 

Quern, a hand-mill, 193 


P.nynach, Lough, pine lore (I near. 


Kenti, how paid in the Highlands, 


raifing of, ill effects of, 


Roads, parallel in Glen-Roy, 


Roads, the military. 


Re bin- Heed's Bay, 


Roe- bucks. 


Koyiton Crows, 



Rumbling Brig near Glen-dcvcn, 


near Bunkdd, 




INDEX. ^ 329 

S Page 

Sacrament, indecently received \nN, Britain^ 87 
Sailors and Soldiers, an attempt to colonize, 100 
Salmon fifheries, antient laws -to preferve, 123 

m England-, 25, 27,41 
in Scotland^ 74, 123, 126, 17,^., i6y 

Salt-Pits at Nortbixjich., 2 

Sand, inundations ot, 124, 139 

Saury, a new Britijh fifh, 298, 299 

Scarborough., 1 7 

its fisheries, 19 

Scone., 75 

Scotland., unpromifing entrance into, 42 

Seals, 159, 292 

Second fight, 164 

Sherlins, or fummer dairies, 107 

Slain'^ Caftle, 1 24 

Snake, a new fpecies, 296 

Snowflake, 295 

Sdland Geefe, 47, 165, 169 

Spalding., 1 3 

Spedre ftory, 9i 

Spey, a violent river, i33 

Spinie Caftle and Lake, i35 

Stags, 289 

Stuart., Mary, pidlures of, ^5^ 

Stocking trade in Aberdeen, ^ ^ ^ 

Stockton.^ 27 

Siraitbearn, a fertile trad, 7° 

Stroma me, ~ 1^3 

Z Sfrua?7, 





Struany Robert fon of, a poet, 92 

SwineJJjrad Abbey, 1 3 

Syhlla, Queen, where buried, 87 


*itantallon Caftle, 4^ 

^arnaway Caftle, 140 

STtfj, Lough, Si 

never frozen till 1769, 82 

Ifle, and convent on it, 87 

T'^^- .Bridge, infcription on it, 84. 

*Tay-moiith^ its beauties, 80 
Theft of cattle, once held not difhonorable, 187 

Tordow/i Caftle, its fingular cement, 184 

'Tumel, the fails of, 10 1 

Lake, 102 

Tunny, 204 

burner. Dr. tVilliam, the naturalift, 32 

'^'ivecdy 40 
'Tyendrum, higheft feated houfe in Scotland, 197 


Vlric\ St. his earth, 158 

Urqbuari Caftle, 180 


Venereal patients,where formerly confined, 2 2 6, 2 79 


Weever, Greater, 298 

WtrCi its fifti, 2S 


INDEX. 331 










where burnt. 

57^ 154 



of Thurfo, 



how lonor exiftinor 

D C5 

in Scothndy 


Women, the common, hardly treated in North 
BriiaWy 126, 168 


Yew tree, a great, 88 

Tiben River, 12^ 

N I S. 

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